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Flashcards in test 3 Deck (22):
1

what kinds of nonrenewable minerals do we use

1. metallic
-most compounds of oxides and sulfides: iron, copper, aluminum
2. nonmetallic
-salt, clay, sand, phosphates, soil
3. energy resources
-coal, oil, natural gas, uranium

2

how many mineral compounds go into a car

nearly 50 including plastic, copper, gold, iron, lead, zinc, silicon, sand and others

3

classifications of resources and reserves

1. resources
2. reserves
3. marginal reserves
4. sub economic resources
5. hypothetical resources
6. speculative resources

4

resources

known locations quality and quanitity

5

reserves

portions of identified resources that can be extracted profitably at current prices

6

marginal reserves

portion of identified resources that boarders on being economically producible

7

sub economic reserves

portion of identified resources that with sufficient economic or technical change may become a reserve

8

hypothetical resources

undiscovered materials that may exist in a known producing area

9

Speculative resources (North Carolina Coast)

undisocovered materials that may exist in. anon-producing (new) area or in. a new form

10

how do we get our resources?

1. determine mode of formation
2. identification of reserves
3. extracting reserves
4.

11

determine mode of formaiton

resources are formed by specific igneous metamorphic, and sedimentary processes
-know where to look and what to look for

12

identification of reserves

-aerial photos and satellite images
-radiation detection
-magnetometer
-gravimeter: gravity differences due to rock density
-seismic surveys: explosions: shock waves
-chemical analysis
-drill cores

13

extractive reserves

1. surface mining
2. subsurface mining

14

surface mining

-minerals and energy resources are extracted near earths surface by removing soil, subsoil, and overlaying rock strata
-morecommon bc less expensive
-genrally <1,000 feet deep
-U.S> 90 % of all minerals, 60% of coal

15

subsurface mining

-mineral and energy resources are extracted from deep underground deposits
-more than 1,000 feet below surface

16

types of surface mining

1. open pit mines
-lare holes dig down and out
2. dredging
-scrapes up underwater mineral deposits using dragline or cutter
3. area strip mining
-used where land is flat
-mine in strips and backfill old holes
4. contour strip mine
-used on hilly or mountainous land where a series of terraces are cut into the hill
5. mountaintop removal
-uses explosives and use machinery to remove the top of a mountain for the coal seams below

17

types of subsurface mining

1. shaft and gallery mining
-go down w shaft and out w galleries
-expensive, dangerous

18

what percent of material mined is waste or tailings

80%

19

processing and refining

-impurities removed from mined materials
-uses lots of energy and water
-produces dirty water and wastes product

20

Environmental impacts

-disruption of land
-surface scarring and restoration
-toxic solid mining waste (spoils, tailings)
-acid mine drainage (sulfuric acid, bacteria)
-air pollution

21

what percent of use watershed is polluted by acid mine drainage

40%

22

what percent of all toxic air emissions are from mining and smelting operations

50%