Flashcards in Test 3 Deck (31):
What is Globalization?
When people and institutions become increasingly more interconnected on a global scale
What are the three historical approaches to globalization?
1) It is as old as civilization and is the cause of modernization.
2) It’s is about 500 years old and is a result of colonialism. It lead to capitalism.
3) It is a recent phenomenon resulting from industrialization and modernization.
What are the three sources of globalization?
Economics, politics, and technology
What are transnational corporations?
Corporations that span nations, and depend on foreign labour and world markets
What are outcomes of globalization?
McDonaldization, regionalization, and glocalization
What is McDonaldization?
The spread of companies that value efficiency, predictability, and calculability
What is regionalization?
The division of the world into different beliefs and systems
What is glocalization?
The strengthening of local differences
What is social stratification?
The division of society into groups that are arranged in a social hierarchy
What is the difference between Income and Wealth?
Income is how much you are paid, wealth is your assets and debts. The latter is harder to change.
What is socioeconomic status? (SES)
An index that combines a person’s income, education, and occupational prestige to determine their place on the social hierarchy.
What is social mobility?
The ability to move up or down in the class system
What are the two types of social mobility?
Intragenerational (mobility within a generation), and intergenerational (mobility between generations)
What is equality of opportunity?
When everyone is given the same chance
What is equality of condition?
When everyone achieves the same result
What is social reproduction?
When social class is passed down from one enervation to the next
What is deviance?
When someone departs from a norm and invokes a negative reaction from others
What is crime?
Deviance that breaks the law
What is law?
A norm stipulated and enforced by government bodies
What are sanctions? What types of sanctions are there?
Punishments, either formal (fines, jail) or informal (gossip, shaming)
What factors influence the variability of deviance and crime?
The severity of social response, the perceived harmfulness of the act, and the degree to which the public agrees that the act is deviant
What are social diversions?
Harmless deviations from the social norm (eg. dying your hair purple)
What are social deviations?
Deviations from stricter social norms in certain cultures (eg. long hair on boys)
What are conflict crimes?
Crimes that are controversial (eg. possession of drugs)
What are consensus crimes?
Crimes that are universally agreed upon (eg. murder)
What are moral crusades?
When a non-deviant act or belief shifts and becomes seen as deviant.
What are the two types of moral entrepreneurs?
Rule creators (moral crusaders), and rule enforcers
What are moral panics?
When a condition, episode, or person/people emerges to become defined as a threat to societal values and interests
What is a folk devil?
The person or group of people who is considered to be deviant; the subject of the moral panic
What are suitable enemies and suitable victims?
Suitable enemies are the subject of a moral panic who are blamed to have a negative impact on the suitable victims