Flashcards in test 3 Deck (31):
1)How does post-modern architecture differ from the international style of architecture?
- international style unity, anonymity and simplicity
-post modern- complexity and fun, calls upon historical memories and local context, exploited vernacular
-return of the wit, ornament and reference (facades, stainless steel embellishments etc)
-rediscovered the expressive and symbolic elements of earlier centuries of building
-described as neo-eclectic
How do modern architects view post modern arch and vice versa?
modern view them as vulgar emulating popular culture such as shopping malls
post modern view them as soulless, bland and over simplistic
when did architectural history start to be taught at schools?
limitations about post modern
too much focus on building form over function
not integrating well with the public realm
When did post-modern architecture begin and then become its own style of architecture?
-started as international style in 1950's
-became own style in 1970s
The term “neo-eclectic” is often used to describe post-modern architecture. What does this term mean?
-return of reference and ornament to building facades (facades, stainless steel embellishments etc)
Post-modern architecture is said to reject the “rigid rules” of modern architecture. What does this mean?
-rules of modern arch (reject minimalism, true use of materials and absence or ornament)
Post-modern architecture is said to have revived some classical elements of architecture. What does this mean?
-revival of columns and other pre modern elements; adapt greek and roman influence
-facades of beaux- arts style and art deco periods
-place contradictory quotes of previous building styles besides eachother
-incorp. furniture stylistic references at huge scale
Post-modern architecture is said to have regard for “contextualism”. What does this mean?
Contextualism” is another aspect of Postmodern architecture not reflected in the modern era.
Postmodern architecture addresses “context “ in terms of the materials, forms and details of the buildings around it—the cultural context.
What do the terms “anthropomorphism” and “double coding” mean in post-modern architecture?
double coding: convey meanings simultaneously
anthropomorphism: giving human like characteristics to objects
What is meant by the term Contemporary Pluralism?
- variety of architectural styles seen today
-includes modernism, rationlism & functionalism, brutalism, historicism, deconstructivism and expressionism
What is meant by the terms “Deconstructivism” and “Expressionism”?
Deconstructionism- describes architecture that explores the aesthetics of incomplete construction or breaks a building up into its various component parts.
Expressionism- is a recurring tendency in architecture.
It is sometimes defined in terms of what it is not (rationalism, functionalism).
The term suggests some non-functional, emotional or aesthetic statement in a building.
Who is considered to be the most prominent Deconstructivist architect? What is an example of his work?
-Gehry House, Santa Monica
Who are two other architects known for “Deconstructivism” and “Expressionism” architecture?
Daniel Libeskind; jewish museum, ROM
Santiago Calatrava : Turning torso
What three elements are said to define Canadian architecture and what defines it?
-connection to site
What are three examples of Canadian architecture based on the three elements?
1. The Bilbao Effect ex Libeskind and the Rom
2. Frank Gehry Art Gallery
3. Douglas Cardinal, St Marys roman catholic church
4. Arthur Erikson; UBC campus
What is meant by the term sustainability?
-responsible management of the earths resources today in order to ensure that they are available for future generations
-concerned with health of society and the natural env't
How can architects and planners have an influence on sustainability?
The “built form” contributes greatly to the over-consumption of the earth’s resources (i.e. buildings, roads, infrastructure, cars, refrigerators etc..).
How can architects and planners use “natural systems” to promote sustainability
What are some examples?
For example, could use systems like sub-grade dwellings carved in silt (loess) in China and cliff dwellings in Dogon built by Sudanese tribesmen
Natural systems used by indigenous peoples include : an orientation of the building to surrounding natural elements; siting of the building to take advantage of the wind and sun
Also, materials used that are local; and building for the residents’ quality of life
How did the Modern Era of architecture impact the natural environment and natural resources?
-mans activities moved indoors creating need for energy ex lighting, air conditioning, heating ventilation
-consume 70% of nations electricity , 50% carbon dioxide emissions
-waste of irreplaceable resources and mass pollution
Where and when were “Green Design” standards were first introduced in the US?
Seattle Washington, 2000
What is meant by the term “Eco Features” in the construction of new buildings?
-meet green design standards
examples include low- slow toilets, solar panels and day lighting, floods building interiors with natural light to reduce electricity use
What does the acronym “LEED” stand for and what is it?
Leadship in Energy and Environmental Design
-rating system to implement their green design stds programs
In what year and by what group was the LEED system introduced?
1993 through American Natural Resources Defence Council
Explain two reasons why LEED was introduced?
1)establish a standard for “green building design”
2)promote whole-building design practices; 3)environmental leadership in the building industry;
4)stimulate green competition;
5)raise consumer awareness regarding green design;
6)and to transform the building market.
How many major categories are included in LEED and what are they?
1. location and planning
2. sustainable sites
3. water efficiency
4. energy and atms
5. materials and resources
6. indoor env'tal quality
7. innovation and design process
8. regional priority
What are the four certification categories for LEED?
certified 40-49 pts
silver 50-59 pts
gold 60-79 pts
platinum -80 +
How many total points are possible in the LEED rating system?
there are 100 possible base points plus an additional 6 points for Innovation in Design and 4 points for Regional Priority
Describe two criticisms of the LEED system?
-higher initial cost
-inequitable ; same rating for feature for every project
Describe two benefits of the LEED system?
- use resources more efficiently
-create healthier env't for employees and home owners