Test 3 Flashcards Preview

MicroBIology > Test 3 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Test 3 Deck (160)
Loading flashcards...

Concerning the organism Corynebacterium Diphtheriae and its disease:

Corynebacteria are part of our normal flora
Death is due to heart or CNS damage
Cultures show pleomorphic Gram+ rods
Genes for exotoxin are on plasmid


Concerning the disease diphtheria:

It is a major childhood disease in many countries of the world
Pseudomembranous obstruction of airways is due necrosis of pharyngeal tissue
Fortunately, this disease is not a medical concern in the USA
Initial control of this disease was via an antitoxin and passive immunity
Transmission is generally via droplets or skin


Concerning diphtheria toxin:

It was the first bacterial exotoxin discovered
Pathogenesis is due to cell lysis by cytotoxin, damaging cells in the CNS near throat and kidneys
Vaccine is principally and antitoxin
Classic A/B toxin
Treated with PEN


Concerning the disease anthrax:

Inhalation of endospores is generally fatal
Koch develops his famous postulates working with this disease agent


Concerning Neisseria spp and their diseases:

These are pyogenic as well as pyrogenic bactera


Concerning Nesseria meningitides disease:

*Diagnosis via spinal tap often reveals the typical diplococcal bacteria
*Treatment must include anti-inflammatory drugs plus penicillin
*Although morbidity is low, mortality is high
*Numerous blood clots lead to gangrene
*Pyrogenic cytokines in the brain are the principal cause of death


Cncerning gonorrhea:

It is often asymptomatic in females
It may be a major cause of infertility in women
Public apathy about it has interfered with control of the disease in the US
It is the second most reported disease
Penicillin is not recommended as treatment
*although it DOESNT cross the placenta like syphilis it is a major medical concern in newborns


Concerning spirochetes and diseases of spirochetes:

Motility is unique among prokaryotes
Gram negative, somewhat twisted in shape
Free-living in environment with several human pathogens


Concerning Borrelia spp and associated diseases:

one of the two borrelia diseases we discussed is historically well known, while the other is a newly emerging disease


Which disease with borrelia spp is historically well known?

Relapsing fever


Which disease with borrelia ssp is a newly emerging disease?

Lyme disease


COncerning syphilis:

Less pathogenic today than in the past
Like gonorrhea, syphilis may cause serious infections during the birth of a child
Like gonorrhea, syphilis is difficult to transmit without intimate interactions
Unlike gonorrhea, syphilis will kill you


Even more concerning syphilis:

Effective immune respons prevents reinfections
Pyrogenic treatments in the past using malaria parasites prevented tertiary syphilis


Concerning Clostridium Microbiology:

All species are spore-forming anaerobes
Their high capability to cause human disease notwithstanding, many spp. are considered normal flora
Botulism is not an infection
Many infections are endogenous orgin


Concerning infections caused by Clostridium tetani:

Fecally contaminated soils are more likely to cause tetanus than normal soil
Most children in the US are vaccinated againt tetanus at an early age
THe toxin acts by blocking the release of neurotransmitters at the motor-neural juction


Concerning disease caused by Clostridium Botulinum

Botulism is considered a toxemia rather than an infection


Further consideration of botulism:

The name comes from sausage, where the toxin is often found
The toxin specifically blocks the neurotansmitter acetylcholine, leading to flaccid paralysis
Toxins are sometimes used for cosmetic puposes
Effective treatment requires both passive immunity and respiratory support


Concerning diseases of Clostridium perfringens

In addition to gangrene, this one also causes food poisoning
Is not a classical A/B toxin
Is found in all soils in the world except the sahara, also in all feces & Vagina
Impairment of blood circulation is a pre-disposing factor in gangrene


Concerning the disease Pseudomembranous colitis:

This diseas is characterized by overwhelming diarrhea
The condition is induced by the over use of broad spectrum antibiotics
This disease is induced by endogenous flora
Pathogenesis is due to bacterial-induced lesions of the gut


Cancering odotopathogens and diseases they cause:

These organisms cause oral disease of the teeth and gums
Dental plaque is a biofilm containing a massive concentration of organisms
The single most important contributor to dental caries is Streptococcus Mutans
The peridontium is composed of gingivae, Cementum, periodontal membrane and bone


Bull neck, an extensive swelling of cervical lymph nodes contributes to respiratory crisis in which disease:



to prevent suffocation, this minor surgical procedure may be necessary to restore breathing when a pseudomemrane obstruction closes of the airway:



This organism causes both skin, enteric and lung disease in humans and is a select agent whose use as a military weapon is well known

Bacillus Anthracis


Most strains of Corynebacterium diphtheriae do not contain the potent exotoxin associated with the disease, However, the genes for this toxin are found on :

The Plasmids


No usable vaccine to gonorrhea exist because N. gonorrhoeae principally avoids the immune response by this mechanism:

Antigenic Variation


Gonorrhea in females often results in a syndrome that includes fever, chronic abdominal pains, leukocytosis, and pelfic abscesses known as:

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)


Eye infections acquired during birth of babies born to mothers with gonorrhea are called

Ophthalmic neonatorum


___________ is inflammation of fallopian tubes, a complication of gonorrhea that often leads to infertility



THe primary symptom of gonorrhea in males is

Pureulent pussy discharge from urethra


This spp of bacteria is responsible for Yaws, Bejel and Pinta:

Treponema Pallidum