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Flashcards in Test 3 Key Terms Deck (76):
1

sensate-focus -

teach people with arousal problems to tell the difference between arousal and anxiety 

2

Anxiety has two major components

physiological reactions and cognitive

3

When does anxiety become a problem?

The anxiety must be chronic, relatively intense, associated with role impairment, and causing significant distress for self or others

4

Prevalence of anxiety disorders

Anxiety disorders are the most common psychological disorders

 

More in women 

5

4 major anxiety disorders

 

Phobia

Panic Disorder

Generalized Anxiety Disorder

Separation anxiety

 

6

agoraphobia

fear of public places

7

        nomophobia 

a pathological fear of remaining out of touch with technology that is experienced by people who have become overly dependent on using their mobile phones (nomophobia meaning no mobile phone phobia) or personal computers.

8

how long is the mean duration for a phobia 

20 years

9

most common phobias

(1) animal phobias (including insects, snakes, and birds); 

(2) heights;

(3) being in closed spaces; 

(4) flying; 

(5) being in or on water;

(6) going to the dentist; 

(7) seeing blood or getting an injection; 

(8) storms, thunder, or lightning.

10

social phobias in 2 parts

general (all social events) and specific (performance anxiety)

11

Social Phobia or Social Anxiety
Disorder: Onset and Duration

Onset generally takes place during adolescence

 

higher among people who had never married or were divorced, had not completed secondary education, had lower income or were unemployed, reported lacking adequate social support, reported low quality of life, or had a chronic physical condition

12

phobias comefrom what kidn of learning 

operant and classical conditioning 

 

modelling

prepardeness

diathesis is needed

13

getting rid

wolpe deep muscle relax

systematic desensitization 

flooding

14

Post-event Processing (PEP) of negative social experiences

related to social anxiety 

15

stability versus lability 

stable people tend less ot be predisposed ot phobias versus lability more so, so there is a genetic predisposition 

16

psychoanalytic theory of phobis 

  • Phobias are a defence against the anxiety produced by repressed id impulses
  • anxiety is displaced from the feared id impulse and moved to an object or situation that has some symbolic connection to it.

17

Panic attacks were related to numerous psychological and physical function variables, including

poor overall functioning, suicidal ideation, psychological distress, activity restriction, chronic physical conditions, and self-rated physical and mental health 

 

may be a marker of severe psychopathology independent of a diagnosis of panic disorder. 

18

panic attack in families?

high concordance in identical twins 

19

hypersensitivity to CCK = 

panic attacks

20

The fear-of-fear hypothesis 

is related to panic attacks - turns into viscious cycle 

as well as predisposition to jumpy ANS

21

Somatic Symptom Disorders

spot on arm is lyme disease

empasize the pain

might actually turn into something if you worry enough 

22

Illness Anxiety disorder

“catastrophic” misinterpretations of bodily sensations

strong beliefs that unexplained bodily changes are always a sign of serious illness 

 

Four contributing factors (cognitive paradigm):

Critical precipitating incident 

Previous experience of illness and related medical factors

Presence of inflexible or negative cognitive assumptions 

Severity of anxiety 

23

Conversion Disorder

neurological deficit that is not due to damage 

- glove anesthesia - you lose use of the arm, but there’s no neurological/nerve damage - it’s all in your head 

24

malinering vs an actual thing

La Belle indifference

25

mood disorders often comorbid with 

Anxiety disorders

Panic attacks

Substance abuse

Sexual dysfunction

Personality disorders

26

Depression: Signs and Symptoms

  • emotional state marked by great sadness
  • feelings of worthlessness and guilt
  • Depression – cognitive or ‘thinking’ disturbance:
  • self-criticism, self-blame 
  • Indecisiveness, slowed thinking, thoughts of death or suicide
  • Depression – physiological (somatic) and behavioural disturbance
  • loss of sleep, appetite, and sexual desire 
  • loss of interest and pleasure in usual activities
  • Symptoms vary between cultures
  • Most depressed individuals focus on somatic symptoms (~85%) 

27

depression more common in women, why?

 

- first attack occurs around puberty 

- estrogen is a depressant - so when it peaks, there’s a tendency to feel the blues- if you see it as cognitive depression then it becomes as such 

- give women testosterone to counter but has side effects that are not desirable  

- so always a physical aspect, but there is a cognitive aspect 

28

difference between bi-polar 1 and 2

  • Bipolar I has mania and psychotic-like symptoms - involves a lot of social - try to recover the money they spent when they were in the state 
  • while Bipolar II (also called hypomania) does not have psychotic symptoms - family therapy has to monitor that they take the meds - cuz when they feel good they stop taking the meds 

29

bi-polar is cognitive or physiological?

- bi polar is not cognitive - it’s more neurological 

30

avg onset of bipolar

20s

equal women and men but men more mania and women more depression 

31

Cyclothymic disorder

 

- is bipolar-like disorder - a little up or down -- it’s a problem if it gets in the way of their lives 

32

Double Depression  

 

People with persistent depressive disorder may also experience episodes of major depressive disorder

33

Psychoanalytic Paradigm of mood disorder

Analogy to bereavement, according to Freud

depression is seen to be like a mourner who over-identifies with (introjects) lost love one

anger turned inward (resents feeling abandoned)

34

CBT theories of depression 

= learned helplessness

35

interpesonal theory of depression

- most people who suffer from a major depressive disorder usually have a limited social network of support - isolation, alienation, 

- vicious cycle - depressed so you shy away

- other people don’t want to be around a depressive person, so all collapses and you become alone 

- therefore create a social network 

- the danger is that the psychotherapist becomes the social network 

36

genetic versus env for mood 

bi is genetic 85% concordance with twins 

depression is 35% unless it's a vitamin B thing 

37

Psychophysiological Disorders (USED TO BE CALLED PSYCHO-SOMATIC DISORDERS)

YOU ACTUALLY HAVE ECSEMA AND YOU THINK IT’S JUST SKIN but it's actually a deeper psycho cause

Examples: asthma, hypertension, headache, and gastritis

caused by or worsened by emotional factors 

versus somato-symptoms where you htink you have something but there's nothing wrong with you 

38

ANS in 2 parts 

sympa : heart up

para: chill out 

Somatic: voluntary 

39

Coping and Stress 

problem focus: change what you can

emotion focus: adjust emotions when you can't do anything about it

goodness of fit: wisdom to know the diff

40

why some people respond worse to stress

Somatic-Weakness Theory

Weakness in a specific body organ 

Example: congenitally weak respiratory system might predispose the individual to asthma

Specific-Reaction Theory

Individual response to stress is idiosyncratic

41

viral infection and stress

undesirable event

bad mood

lowered slgA antibody

increase risk of infection 

42

dealing with stress 

arousal reduction

cognitive restructerring

mindfulness

behavioral skills training 

43

Anorexia NERVOSA has the highest

mortality rate***of ALL PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS *** FAR HIGHER THAN SUICIDE IDEATION *** IF NOT TREATED PROPERLY IT’LL LEAD TO DEATH 

UNFORTUNATELY THE LEAST AMOUNT OF MONEY IS SPENT ON IT 

TAKES 8 MONTHS TO A YEAR TO TREAT 

HITS WOMEN WAY MORE THAN MALES 

STOP EATING 

FIRST SYMPTOMS ARE WEAKNESS 

44

Bulimia

IS STARVATION, BINGING AND PURGING - ROTS THE BODY FORM PUKE - ULCERS, LOSS OF TEETH, ETC... DENTIST WILL ALWAYS SEE THE FIRST SIGNS AS THAT IS WHERE THE EROSION HAPPENS  - RESPONDS TO COUNSELING AND EASY TO TREAT 

45

Binge eating

IS JUST BINGE, SO NO STARVATION - RESPONDS TO COUNSELING AND EASY TO TREAT 

46

In females, the extreme emaciation causes --- the loss of the menstrual period.

amenorrhea

47

eating disorders are also prone to

depression, panic disorder, and social phobia 

 

early to middle teenage years, often after an episode of dieting and exposure to life stress. 

48

drug use with eating disorders?

not tied to AN but yes to Bulimia and binge

49

more suicide in AN than bulimia

but more ideation in bulimia

50

Fat talk refers to

the tendency for friends, particularly female friends, to take turns disparaging their bodies to each other. 

Both average weight and overweight target people were seen as more likeable if they were depicted engaging in fat talk (Barwick et al., 2012)

Fat talk seems to reflect a highly defensive and negative sense of self.

51

Binge Eating Disorder

  • It is distinguished from anorexia by the absence of weight loss and from bulimia by the absence of compensatory behaviours (purging, fasting, or excessive exercise). 
  • Binge Eating Disorder seems more treatment responsive than anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa.
  • easiest to treat, next is bulimia and last is AN
  • but it lasts longer than AN or BN
  • associated with substance and abuse 

52

Scarlett O’Hara Effect

eat less to be perceived as more feminine 

53

Behaviours that achieve or maintain thinness are --- reinforced by the reduction of anxiety about becoming fat.

Dieting and weight loss may be --- reinforced by the sense of mastery or self-control they create

negatively

positively

54

thinspiration effect

Chronic dieters actually feel thinner after looking at idealized images of the thin body and this motivates them to diet

55

Psychodynamic Views of eating disorders

disturbed parent–child relationships

low self-esteem and perfectionism

the need to increase one’s sense of personal effectiveness (the person succeeds in maintaining a strict diet) or to avoid growing up sexually

56

Minuchin: Family Systems Theory (eating disorders)

enmeshment

overprotectiveness

rigidity

lack of conflict resolution 

57

therapies for ED

1st phase get them eating so they get healthy again: operant conditioning - rewards

2nd phase: CBT for bulimia and binge

family therapy for AN

58

Schizophrenia -

  • Psychotic disorder characterized by major disturbances in thought, emotion, and behaviour
  • Disordered thinking in which ideas are not logically related
  • Faulty perception and attention
  • Flat or inappropriate affect
  • Bizarre disturbances in motor activity

59

male to female prevalnence of schizophrenia

1.4

60

Comorbid Conditions of Schiz

Substance abuse (37%)  Depression (40%) Social anxiety disorder 14.9% 

61

diagnoses

is diverse - heterogeneity 

Positive Symptoms

Excesses or distortions

Disorganized speech

Delusions

Hallucinations

62

waxy flexibility ,

whereby another person can move the persons ’ limbs into strange positions that they maintain for extended periods.

63

suicide among those with schiz is 

high

they are cut-off because it severly affects social skills 

64

schiz causes

Most likely the result of multiple gene interaction leading to high genetic predisposition and poor ability to cope with even minor life stressors

 

Children reared without contact with their so-called pathogenic mothers were still more likely to become schizophrenic than were the control participants. 

65

five disorders that appear to share a common genetic vulnerability:

schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, autism spectrum disorder, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

66

Social-selection theory  SCHIZ

you're out of your mind so you go to bad neighborhood and the likelihood of getting better decreases 

67

developmental risk factors SCHIZ

IQ

disagreeable 

delinquint

poorer motor skills 

68

approach to helping SCHIZ

meds 

treat comorbid like depression

pychosocial / family intervention

CBT can be useful to help them differentiate between hallucination/delusion and reality

69

for substance abuse to be a problem

Failure to fulfill major obligations 

Exposure to physical dangers 

Legal problems 

Persistent social or interpersonal problems

70

DSM treats Substance Abuse as

severity not distinct categories

gambling is part of it

71

Biphasic effect of alchohol:

Initial effect of alcohol: acts as a stimulant

Later effect of alcohol: acts as a depressant

72

long term effects of alchohol 

  • Malnutrition 
  • Deficiency of B-complex vitamins → amnestic syndrome
  • Cirrhosis of the liver
  • Damage to the endocrine glands and pancreas
  • Heart failure, hypertension, stroke, and capillary hemorrhages, which in turn can produce:
  • Brain damage 

73

Single most preventable cause of premature death (1 in every 5 deaths)

nicotine

74

Evidence for genetic predisposition for alcohol abuse

identical twins more likely than fraternal twins to have concordance for alcohol, caffeine, nicotine and heavy cannabis and drug use

75

Criteria for Personality Disorder
Alternative DSM-5 Model 

A. An enduring pattern of inner experience and behaviour that deviates markedly from the expectations of the individual's culture. The pattern is manifest in two (or more) of the following areas:

Cognition (i.e., ways of perceiving and interpreting the self, other people, and events)

Affectivity (i.e., the range, intensity, lability, and appropriateness of emotional response)

Interpersonal functioning

Impulse control

B. The enduring pattern is inflexible and pervasive across a broad range of personal and social situations.

C. The enduring pattern leads to clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

D. The pattern is stable and of long duration, and its onset can be traced back at least to adolescence or early adulthood.

E. The enduring pattern is not better explained as a manifestation or consequence of another mental disorder.

F. The enduring pattern is not attributable to the physiological effects of a substance or another medical condition.

76

Table 14.1 Paraphilic Disorders and Sexual Dysfunctions

Paraphilias

Fetishistic disorder

Transvestic disorder

Pedophilic disorder

Exhibitionistic disorder

Voyeuristic disorder

Frotteuristic disorder

Sexual masochism disorder

Sexual sadism disorder

Other specified paraphilic disorder (e.g., zoophilia, necrophilia)

Unspecified paraphilic disorder (i.e., not meeting full criteria for other disorders)

Sexual Disorders

Sexual Desire Disorders

Male hypoactive sexual desire disorder

Sexual Arousal Disorders

Female sexual interest/arousal disorder

Erectile disorder

Orgasmic disorders

Female orgasmic disorder (inhibited female orgasm)

Male orgasmic disorder (inhibited male orgasm)

Premature (early) ejaculation

Delayed ejaculation

Genito-Pelvic Pain/Penetration Disorders

Substance/Medication-Induced Sexual Dysfunction