Test 3 - Regulation And Integration Of Metabolism Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Test 3 - Regulation And Integration Of Metabolism Deck (23):
1

What controls the body’s organ systems?

CNS

Con of the CNS
-Metabolically demanding
—Huge glucose consumer

2

What are the two pathways fro nervous system control of organ systems function?

ANS

Neuroendocrine
-Hypothalamus
-Pit
-Thyroid
-Parathyroids
-Adipose
-Adrenals
-Pancreas
-Ovaries/Testes

3

What is “in charge of” descending organ system control?

Hypothalamus

4

The hypothalamus uses two pathways of control. Name and describe them.

Direct - Autonomic - Pre-gang neurons

Indirect - Hormonal - Release of pit and adrenal cortex hormones

5

The ANS has three parts. Name and describe them.

Sympathetic nervous system
-Fight or flight
-Response to stressful or harmful stimuli

Parasympathetic nervous system
-Rest and digest
-Replenishment of the body’s resources

Enteric nervous system
-Digestive system function
-Movement of food thru the gut

*Controls systems that unconsciously coordinate and sustain life

6

What is the enteric nervous system?

Mesh-like neuronal network surrounding the gut

Oversight from Sym and parasym

*Can function independently of CNS

7

What does the neuroendocrine system respond to and what are the 3 key players of the neuroendocrine system?

Peripheral sensory information and higher brain centers
-Initiated by release of hormones and signals from the hypothalamus

-Hypothalamus
-Pituitary
-Adrenal glands

8

The post pit is what?

An extension of the hypothalamus
-It is neural tissue

Uses the tract system to distribute hormones

9

The ant pit is what?

A “true” endocrine organ
-Endocrine tissue

*Uses the portal system to distribute hormones

10

Hormones have a broad number of effects. Name some effects.

Feeding
Kidneys
Repro
Testosterone
Stress response

11

The liver regulates what?

Blood sugar
Glycogen storage
AA content
Lipid formation and mobilization
1st pass metabolism

12

What does the pancreas do?

Insulin (beta) release during high blood sugar

Glucagon (alpha) release during low blood sugar

Large intestine pH buffering

Protease release

13

What does the gallbladder do?

Store bile

Release bile salts to degrade lipids

14

What is the Cori cycle?

Glycogen broken down to lactate during rapid contraction

Lactate into blood

Lactate taken into liver

Glucose released by liver into blood

Muscle takes up glucose to restore glycogen

15

What is the glucose - alanine cycle?

Muscle does glycolysis and produces pyruvate

Pyruvate turned into alanine

Alanine into blood

Alanine in blood taken up by liver

Liver converts alanine to pyruvate
-This allows for alpha-keto to turn into glutamate which is fed into urea cycle and urea is produced

Pyruvate to glucose

Liver releases glucose into blood

16

Free FAs in blood are transported bound to what?

Albumin

17

Where does B-oxidation happen?

In the cytosol (hepatocytes are an example which produce ketone bodies)

18

What hormones regulate blood sugar?

Insulin (beta cells of pancreas)

Glucagon (alpha cells of pancreas)

19

Intracellular concentration of what dictates release of insulin?

ATP

*In general, blood glucose levels directly regulate insulin release

20

Insulin drives what 3 metabolic processes?

Glucose uptake

Glycogen storage

Lipid synthesis

21

Glucagon drives what 3 metabolic processes?

Glucose release

Amino acid breakdown

FA breakdown (Ketone body production)

22

What are the 3 ketone bodies?

B-hydroxybutyrate

Acetone

Acetoacetate

23

In general, what are the fuel sources during starvation?

Glycogen stores

Fat

Protein