Flashcards in Test 3 - Regulation And Integration Of Metabolism Deck (23):
What controls the body’s organ systems?
Con of the CNS
—Huge glucose consumer
What are the two pathways fro nervous system control of organ systems function?
What is “in charge of” descending organ system control?
The hypothalamus uses two pathways of control. Name and describe them.
Direct - Autonomic - Pre-gang neurons
Indirect - Hormonal - Release of pit and adrenal cortex hormones
The ANS has three parts. Name and describe them.
Sympathetic nervous system
-Fight or flight
-Response to stressful or harmful stimuli
Parasympathetic nervous system
-Rest and digest
-Replenishment of the body’s resources
Enteric nervous system
-Digestive system function
-Movement of food thru the gut
*Controls systems that unconsciously coordinate and sustain life
What is the enteric nervous system?
Mesh-like neuronal network surrounding the gut
Oversight from Sym and parasym
*Can function independently of CNS
What does the neuroendocrine system respond to and what are the 3 key players of the neuroendocrine system?
Peripheral sensory information and higher brain centers
-Initiated by release of hormones and signals from the hypothalamus
The post pit is what?
An extension of the hypothalamus
-It is neural tissue
Uses the tract system to distribute hormones
The ant pit is what?
A “true” endocrine organ
*Uses the portal system to distribute hormones
Hormones have a broad number of effects. Name some effects.
The liver regulates what?
Lipid formation and mobilization
1st pass metabolism
What does the pancreas do?
Insulin (beta) release during high blood sugar
Glucagon (alpha) release during low blood sugar
Large intestine pH buffering
What does the gallbladder do?
Release bile salts to degrade lipids
What is the Cori cycle?
Glycogen broken down to lactate during rapid contraction
Lactate into blood
Lactate taken into liver
Glucose released by liver into blood
Muscle takes up glucose to restore glycogen
What is the glucose - alanine cycle?
Muscle does glycolysis and produces pyruvate
Pyruvate turned into alanine
Alanine into blood
Alanine in blood taken up by liver
Liver converts alanine to pyruvate
-This allows for alpha-keto to turn into glutamate which is fed into urea cycle and urea is produced
Pyruvate to glucose
Liver releases glucose into blood
Free FAs in blood are transported bound to what?
Where does B-oxidation happen?
In the cytosol (hepatocytes are an example which produce ketone bodies)
What hormones regulate blood sugar?
Insulin (beta cells of pancreas)
Glucagon (alpha cells of pancreas)
Intracellular concentration of what dictates release of insulin?
*In general, blood glucose levels directly regulate insulin release
Insulin drives what 3 metabolic processes?
Glucagon drives what 3 metabolic processes?
Amino acid breakdown
FA breakdown (Ketone body production)
What are the 3 ketone bodies?