Test 3 Respiratory & Digestion A&P Flashcards Preview

A&P II > Test 3 Respiratory & Digestion A&P > Flashcards

Flashcards in Test 3 Respiratory & Digestion A&P Deck (71):
1

What organs are part of the upper respiratory tract

*Nose
*Nasopharynx
*Laryngopharynx
*Larynx

2

What organs are part of the lower respiratory tract

*Trachea
*Bronchial Tree
*Lungs

3

Functions of the nose

*Passageway for air going to and from the lungs
*nasal mucosa filters and warms air
*Smell receptors (Olfactory epithelium)
*resonated sound for speech

4

Paranasal sinuses

*Frontal
*Maxillary
*Ethmoid
*Sphenoid

5

Scientific name for the throat

*Pharynx

6

Scientific name for the voice box

*Larynx

7

Scientific name for the wind pipe

*Trachea

8

Three parts of the pharynx

*Nasopharynx
*Oropharynx
*Laryngopharynx

9

Seven openings to the pharynx

*Right & Left auditory (Eustachian) tubes
*2 posterior nares
*Fauces
*Into the larynx (air passage)
*Into the esophagus (food & water passage)

10

Names and functions of the cartilages found in the larynx

*Epiglottis - covers air passage when swallowing
*Thyroid - holds air passage open
*Cricoid - connects larynx to trachea
*arytenoid
*Cuneiform
Corniculate

11

Parts of the Bronchial Tree and how many branches

*2 Primary Bronchi (Right & Left lung)
*5 Secondary Bronchi (3 right & 2 Left
*20 Tertiary Bronchi (10 segments on either side)

12

What cell makes surfactant? Function of Surfactant?

*Type II Cell -

13

What is the diaphragm and its function?

Muscle used in breathing and separates the thorax cavity from the abdominopelvic cavity

14

Structure & location of the pleural membranes

*Parietal Pleura - lines the thoracic cavity; it partitions off the mediastinum
*Visceral Pleura - lies against the parietal pleura; contains pleural fluid for lubrication, avoiding friction and respirations are painless.

15

Examples of upper tract infections

*Rhinitis - inflammation of nose
*Pharyngitis - inflammation of throat
*Laryngitis - inflammation of vocal cords

16

Examples of lower tract infections

*TB - caused by bacteria (mycobacterium tuberculosis)
*Pneumonia (bacterial, viral, fungal)

17

Types of cells found in the alveolus

*Type I cell - endothelium cell
*Type II cell - makes surfactant
*Alveolar macrophages

18

What is 1 Standard Atmospheric Pressure?

760 mmHg

19

What is Boyle's Law & formula

Volume of gas varies inversely with the pressure at constant temperature
P1V1=P2V2

20

What is occurring during inspiration to the volume of the lungs and the pressure changes occurring

*During inspiration, pressure in lungs is lower than outside
*diaphragm contracts and descends and volume increases

21

What muscles are working during inspiration?

*External intercostals
*diaphragm

22

What muscles are working during expiration?

*Internal intercostals
*diaphragm

23

Differences between forceful inspiration and normal inspiration

*Inspiration - diaphragm & external intercostals
*Forceful expiration - sternocleidomastoidf, pectoralis minor, & serratus anterior

24

What is Tidal Volume?

Volume inspired or expired per breath
Males 600mL
Females 500mL

25

What is Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV)

Maximum inspiration at end of tidal inspiration
Males 3L
Females 1.9L

26

What is Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV)?

Maximum expiration at end of tidal expiration
Males 1.2L
Female 800mL

27

What is Total Lung Capacity (TLC)?

Volume in lungs after maximal inspiration
Males 6L
Females 4.2L

28

What is Residual Lung Volume (RLV)?

Volume in lungs after maximum expiration
Males 1.2L
Females 1L

29

What is Forced Vital Capacity (FVC)?

Maximum volume expired after maximum inspiration
Males 4.8L
Females 3.2L

30

Equation for Vital Capacity (VC)

VC=ERV+TV+IRV

31

What is hypoventilation?

Decrease in ventilation that results in elevated CO2 levels; slow, shallow respiration

32

What is dyspnea?

labored or difficult breathing

33

What is Orthopnea?

dyspnea when lying down

34

What is apnea?

cessation of breathing at end of normal expiration

35

What is Cheyne-Stokes?

cycles of apnea and hyperventilation; associated with brain injury

36

What is Biot's

repeated sequences of deep gasps and apnea

37

What is apneusis

cessation of breathing in the inspiratory position

38

What is eupnea

quiet normal breathing

39

What is hypernea?

increased breathing rate to meet need

40

What is hyperventilation?

increase in ventilation in excess of need

41

What is Dalton's Law and the equation?

Partial pressure is directly related to the concentration of the gas in the atmosphere

Partial Pressure=(Percentage of gas/100)xatmospheric pressure

Percentage of gas=(Partial pressure of gas/atmospheric pressure)x100

42

How is oxygen carried in the blood?

*Dissolved in plasma (about 20%-arterial)
*Combines with hemoglobin (oxyhemoglobin)

43

How is Carbon Dioxide carried in the blood?

*Dissolved in plasma (about 10%)
*Attaches to hemoglobin (carbaminohemoglobin-about 20%)
*Transported as HCO3 (bicarbonate ion - about 70%)

44

How are bicarbonate ions formed?

CO2+H2O => H2CO3 => H+ +HCO3-

45

Control center for Inspiratory Respiration & function

DRG - Dorsal Respiratory Group
Generation of respiratory rhythm, generation of inspiration

46

Control center for expiratory respiration & function

VRG - Ventral Respiratory Group
Restores breathing rhythm homeostasis, active during forced expiration

47

Control center for apneustic respiration & function

Pons
Increases length and depth of inspiration

48

Control center for pneumotaxic respiration & function

PRG - Pontine Respiratory Group in the Pons
prevents over inflation of the lungs

49

Layers of the GI Tract & what kinds of tissues are found in each

*Mucosa - innermost layer - epithelium, connective
*Submucosa - next layer - glandular epithelium, connective tissue, blood vessels
*Muscularis - smooth muscle, longitudinal muscle, circular muscle
*Serosa or adventia - outermost layer - connective tissue

50

Order of the small intestine

*Duodenum - about 25cm
*Jejunum - about 2.5m
*Ileum - 3.5m

51

Order of the large intestine

*Ascending colon
*Transverse colon
*Descending colon
*Sigmoid colon

52

What cell in stomach produces HCl acid?

Parietal cell

53

Functions of stomach

*reservoir for food storage
*secretes gastric juice, enzymes
*churns food
*Secretes intrinsic factor needed for absorption of B-12
*absorption of water, alcohol & certain drugs
*produces gastrin and ghrelin
*HCl acid destroys consumed pathogenic bacteria

54

Function of liver

*detoxify chemicals
*synthesis and secretion of bile
*metabolism of proteins, fats, carbohydrates
*stores iron, oil soluble vitamins and B12
*produces plasma proteins
*site of hematopoiesis

55

Function of gallbladder

*stores bile

56

Structure of liver

*4 lobes - Right, left, caudate, & quadrate
*lobes divided into smaller units called lobules

57

Function and parts of villi

*Found on the inside wall of small intestine, jejunum
*contains arteriole, venule, & lacteal vessel
*columnar epithelial cells
*lined with microvilli

58

Names & Function of salivary glands

*Parotid
*sublingual
*submandibular

Produce enzymes to digest carbohydrates (amylase), and produce mucus

59

Structure & function of pancreas

*pancreatic duct
*acinar units make pancreatic juice
*beta cells make insulin
*alpha cells make glucagon
*enzyme lipase

60

What is mastication?

chewing

61

What is deglutination?

swallowing

62

What is segmentation?

mixing movement of food

63

What is peristalsis?

wave like ripple of muscle layer of GI tract

64

What is occurring during the stages of deglutination?

*Oral stage - mouth to oropharynx-uvula seals off nasal cavity
*Pharyngeal stage - oropharynx to esophagus
*Esophageal stage - esophagus to stomach

65

Action of emulsification of fats by bile

*Bile emulsifies (mechanical breakdown) fats
*lipase from the pancreas digests fats
*end product of fat digestion is (triglyceride) glycerol & 3 fatty acids

66

Action & examples of digestive enzymes

See card

67

Function of chylomicrons

transports fat soluble & oil soluble substances

68

Phases of gastric secretions

*Cephalic Phase
-Sight, smell, taste stimulate medulla oblongata

*Gastric phase
-Distention, pepsinogen & HCl, protein digestion, increased gastrin

*Intestinal Phase
-Decreased secretion of gastrin, GIP secretion

69

Examples of cofactor and coenzymes

COFACTOR
*ions of minerals like Ca++, Mg++, Mn++, Zn+

COENZYMES
*NADH, FADH2

70

Actions & where are digestive system hormones produced?

see card

71

What is the enzyme found in RBCs which converts carbon dioxide and water to carbonic acid?

Carbonic anhydrase