Flashcards in Test 3 Respiratory & Digestion A&P Deck (71):
What organs are part of the upper respiratory tract
What organs are part of the lower respiratory tract
Functions of the nose
*Passageway for air going to and from the lungs
*nasal mucosa filters and warms air
*Smell receptors (Olfactory epithelium)
*resonated sound for speech
Scientific name for the throat
Scientific name for the voice box
Scientific name for the wind pipe
Three parts of the pharynx
Seven openings to the pharynx
*Right & Left auditory (Eustachian) tubes
*2 posterior nares
*Into the larynx (air passage)
*Into the esophagus (food & water passage)
Names and functions of the cartilages found in the larynx
*Epiglottis - covers air passage when swallowing
*Thyroid - holds air passage open
*Cricoid - connects larynx to trachea
Parts of the Bronchial Tree and how many branches
*2 Primary Bronchi (Right & Left lung)
*5 Secondary Bronchi (3 right & 2 Left
*20 Tertiary Bronchi (10 segments on either side)
What cell makes surfactant? Function of Surfactant?
*Type II Cell -
What is the diaphragm and its function?
Muscle used in breathing and separates the thorax cavity from the abdominopelvic cavity
Structure & location of the pleural membranes
*Parietal Pleura - lines the thoracic cavity; it partitions off the mediastinum
*Visceral Pleura - lies against the parietal pleura; contains pleural fluid for lubrication, avoiding friction and respirations are painless.
Examples of upper tract infections
*Rhinitis - inflammation of nose
*Pharyngitis - inflammation of throat
*Laryngitis - inflammation of vocal cords
Examples of lower tract infections
*TB - caused by bacteria (mycobacterium tuberculosis)
*Pneumonia (bacterial, viral, fungal)
Types of cells found in the alveolus
*Type I cell - endothelium cell
*Type II cell - makes surfactant
What is 1 Standard Atmospheric Pressure?
What is Boyle's Law & formula
Volume of gas varies inversely with the pressure at constant temperature
What is occurring during inspiration to the volume of the lungs and the pressure changes occurring
*During inspiration, pressure in lungs is lower than outside
*diaphragm contracts and descends and volume increases
What muscles are working during inspiration?
What muscles are working during expiration?
Differences between forceful inspiration and normal inspiration
*Inspiration - diaphragm & external intercostals
*Forceful expiration - sternocleidomastoidf, pectoralis minor, & serratus anterior
What is Tidal Volume?
Volume inspired or expired per breath
What is Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV)
Maximum inspiration at end of tidal inspiration
What is Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV)?
Maximum expiration at end of tidal expiration
What is Total Lung Capacity (TLC)?
Volume in lungs after maximal inspiration
What is Residual Lung Volume (RLV)?
Volume in lungs after maximum expiration
What is Forced Vital Capacity (FVC)?
Maximum volume expired after maximum inspiration
Equation for Vital Capacity (VC)
What is hypoventilation?
Decrease in ventilation that results in elevated CO2 levels; slow, shallow respiration
What is dyspnea?
labored or difficult breathing
What is Orthopnea?
dyspnea when lying down
What is apnea?
cessation of breathing at end of normal expiration
What is Cheyne-Stokes?
cycles of apnea and hyperventilation; associated with brain injury
What is Biot's
repeated sequences of deep gasps and apnea
What is apneusis
cessation of breathing in the inspiratory position
What is eupnea
quiet normal breathing
What is hypernea?
increased breathing rate to meet need
What is hyperventilation?
increase in ventilation in excess of need
What is Dalton's Law and the equation?
Partial pressure is directly related to the concentration of the gas in the atmosphere
Partial Pressure=(Percentage of gas/100)xatmospheric pressure
Percentage of gas=(Partial pressure of gas/atmospheric pressure)x100
How is oxygen carried in the blood?
*Dissolved in plasma (about 20%-arterial)
*Combines with hemoglobin (oxyhemoglobin)
How is Carbon Dioxide carried in the blood?
*Dissolved in plasma (about 10%)
*Attaches to hemoglobin (carbaminohemoglobin-about 20%)
*Transported as HCO3 (bicarbonate ion - about 70%)
How are bicarbonate ions formed?
CO2+H2O => H2CO3 => H+ +HCO3-
Control center for Inspiratory Respiration & function
DRG - Dorsal Respiratory Group
Generation of respiratory rhythm, generation of inspiration
Control center for expiratory respiration & function
VRG - Ventral Respiratory Group
Restores breathing rhythm homeostasis, active during forced expiration
Control center for apneustic respiration & function
Increases length and depth of inspiration
Control center for pneumotaxic respiration & function
PRG - Pontine Respiratory Group in the Pons
prevents over inflation of the lungs
Layers of the GI Tract & what kinds of tissues are found in each
*Mucosa - innermost layer - epithelium, connective
*Submucosa - next layer - glandular epithelium, connective tissue, blood vessels
*Muscularis - smooth muscle, longitudinal muscle, circular muscle
*Serosa or adventia - outermost layer - connective tissue
Order of the small intestine
*Duodenum - about 25cm
*Jejunum - about 2.5m
*Ileum - 3.5m
Order of the large intestine
What cell in stomach produces HCl acid?
Functions of stomach
*reservoir for food storage
*secretes gastric juice, enzymes
*Secretes intrinsic factor needed for absorption of B-12
*absorption of water, alcohol & certain drugs
*produces gastrin and ghrelin
*HCl acid destroys consumed pathogenic bacteria
Function of liver
*synthesis and secretion of bile
*metabolism of proteins, fats, carbohydrates
*stores iron, oil soluble vitamins and B12
*produces plasma proteins
*site of hematopoiesis
Function of gallbladder
Structure of liver
*4 lobes - Right, left, caudate, & quadrate
*lobes divided into smaller units called lobules
Function and parts of villi
*Found on the inside wall of small intestine, jejunum
*contains arteriole, venule, & lacteal vessel
*columnar epithelial cells
*lined with microvilli
Names & Function of salivary glands
Produce enzymes to digest carbohydrates (amylase), and produce mucus
Structure & function of pancreas
*acinar units make pancreatic juice
*beta cells make insulin
*alpha cells make glucagon
What is mastication?
What is deglutination?
What is segmentation?
mixing movement of food
What is peristalsis?
wave like ripple of muscle layer of GI tract
What is occurring during the stages of deglutination?
*Oral stage - mouth to oropharynx-uvula seals off nasal cavity
*Pharyngeal stage - oropharynx to esophagus
*Esophageal stage - esophagus to stomach
Action of emulsification of fats by bile
*Bile emulsifies (mechanical breakdown) fats
*lipase from the pancreas digests fats
*end product of fat digestion is (triglyceride) glycerol & 3 fatty acids
Action & examples of digestive enzymes
Function of chylomicrons
transports fat soluble & oil soluble substances
Phases of gastric secretions
-Sight, smell, taste stimulate medulla oblongata
-Distention, pepsinogen & HCl, protein digestion, increased gastrin
-Decreased secretion of gastrin, GIP secretion
Examples of cofactor and coenzymes
*ions of minerals like Ca++, Mg++, Mn++, Zn+
Actions & where are digestive system hormones produced?