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Flashcards in Test 3-The Heart Deck (120)
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1

The heart is a muscular organ about the size of what?

A fist

2

How many chambers does the heart have? What kind of pump is it?

Four-chambered double pump.

3

At rest, the heart of an adult pumps about ____ L/min of blood.

5.0L/min

4

How long does it take for blood to be circulated to the most distal extremities and back to the heart?

About ONE minute.

5

What are the four chambers of the heart called? What two categories are they put into and where are they located?

Atria- Two upper chambers, sometimes called auriles Ventricles- Two Lower chambers. 1. right/left Atrium 2. Right/left Ventricle

6

The right atrioventricular (AV) valve is know as the ____valve

Tricuspid valve

7

The left atrioventricular (AV) valve is also known as the _____ valve

Mitral valve

8

What are the four heart valves and where are they located?

1. Pulmonary valve (right) 2. Right AV valve (Tricuspid) 3. Aortic Valve (left) 4. Left AV Valve (mitral) Located between the atria and the ventricles.

9

The pulmonary valve and the aortic valve are also called the _____ valves because they have 3 cusps which resemble half moons.

Semilunar

10

The pulmonary valve and the aortic valve are also called the _____ valves because they have 3 cusps which resemble half moons.

Semilunar

11

In 'Mid-diastole' the blood flows from the atria to the ventricles, it flows actively or passively?

Passively.

12

During the 'Atrial systole' process. The ___ contract and pump the additional ___ to ___ % of the blood into the ____. As the ___ contract, the orifices of the ____ ____ and ____ veins narrow; however, there is some regurgitation of blood into the ___/

During the 'Atrial systole' process. the ATRIA contract and pump the additional 20 to 30 % of the blood into the VENTRICLES. As the ATRIA contract, the orifices of the VENAE CAVAE and PULMONARY veins narrow; however, there is some regurgitation of blood into the VEINS.

13

Which valves are closed during isovolumetric contraction?

All four valves are closed

14

What is considered to be an average PULSE PRESSURE?

40-50 mm Hg

15

Name 10 factors that increase heart rate

Excitement, Anger, Painful stimuli, Hypoxia, Exercise, Epinephrine, Norepinephrine, Thyroid hormones, Fever, Inspiration

16

What is bradycardia and what are some factors that cause it?

Bradycardia is a decrease in heart rate to less than 60 beats/minute. It can be caused by expiration, fear, and grief

17

Nerves affect cardiac pumping in two ways: chronotropic and inotropic. What does each of those alter?

Chronotropic- changes the heart rate Inotropic- changes the strength of contraction

18

In the cardiac cycle, there are two main functions (*blood pressure). What are they referred to as, and what are their functions?

1. Systole. Phase of Contraction. Emptying of the atria and ventricles 2. Diastole. Phase of Relaxation. Filling of the atria and ventricles.

19

From the two main functions, the cardiac cycle has a total of four processes? What are they, in order?

1. Mid-diastole 2. Atrial systole 3. Ventricular systole 4. Early diastole

20

During the 'Mid-diastole' process. The ___ and ___ are ____. The ___ and ___ valves are ____, the ___ and ____ valves are _____.

During the 'Mid-diastole' process. The ATRIA and VENTRICLES are RELAXED. The TRICUSPID and MITRAL valves are OPEN, the AORTIC and PULMONARY valves are CLOSED.

21

Before the end of the 'Mid-diastole' phase, ___ to ___ % of ventricular filling occurs.

65 to 85 %

22

The heart is a muscular organ about the size of what?

A fist

23

What is the average heart rate in the SA node?

72-75 beats per minute

24

What is the heart rate in the AV node?

50-60 beats per minute

25

What is the heart rate in the ventricles?

30-40 beats per minute

26

What is the maximum sympathetic stimulation in the heart?

250 beats per minute

27

One catecholamine has a significant impact on the permeability of cardiac cells to Na+ and Ca++. Which is it and what is it's influence?

Norepinephrine; increases the permeability

28

What is the overall impact of sympathetic control on the cardiac system?

It increases the rate and force of contraction

29

What is the overall impact of parasympathetic control on the cardiac system?

it decreases the rate and force of contraction

30

In the cardiac cycle, there are two main functions (*blood pressure). What are they referred to as, and what are their functions?

1. Systole. Phase of Contraction. Emptying of the atria and ventricles 2. Diastole. Phase of Relaxation. Filling of the atria and ventricles.