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Flashcards in Test 3 Vocab Deck (100):
1

a collection of prayers found in a Book of Hours to be prayed throughout the day by religious or lay people

Divine Hours or Divine Office

2

“eye to the sky”, describes the circular opening at the center of a dome

oculus

3

vaults in which a framework of diagonal or transverse ribs reinforce the intersections of the vaulting sections

rib vaults

4

combination of a lower story with a rough textured surface and upper stories textured with a smooth surface on the façade of a Roman building

rustication

4

choir or chevet, contains or is near the high altar

apse

4

area between the apse and narthex of a church often with side aisles to either of its long sides; the congregation gathers here during worship

nave

4

Early Christian, Byzantine and Middle Ages method of representing meaning through gestures, body attitudes and poses

pantomime

4

a vault divided into six panels

sexpartite vault

4

Italian for both piety and pity, it refers to the theme of the Virgin Mary holding the body of the dead Christ

pietà

5

stones that are polished smooth instead of cut

cabochon gemstones

6

center of Roman civic life in a town

forum

6

metalworking technique wherein strips of metal are soldered onto a metal plate edge-up in patterns then filled in with enamel in order to form a design

cloisonné

6

circular format pattern of stained glass resembling a blossom held by stone and bar tracery into the wall usually found at the ends of the transepts on the façade and apse of a Gothic church

rose window

7

wedge-shaped vertical timbers used in Viking architecture

stave

7

refers to the distinct styles of illuminating manuscripts popular during the Carolingian era

Carolingian “schools”

8

title for the Virgin Mary, Greek word for “God-bearer” or “Mother of God”

Theotokos

8

engaged columns attached to rectangular supports

composite piers

9

objects placed higher in a composition are to be perceived as further away in the distance from the picture plane

positioning perspective

10

porous rock formed from the deposits of springs, plentiful in central Italy

tufa

10

a covered walkway enclosing a cloister or courtyard

ambulatory

11

renewal of the Roman Empire, Charlemagne’s goal

renovatio imperii Romani

12

in a Roman amphitheater, the cloth awning rolled down from atop the cavea to protect spectators from sun or weather elements

velarium

13

philosophical method concerning the reconciliation of faith and reason (e.g., offering a proof of the existence of God independent of faith and based on reason) founded by St. Anselm in the 11th century

Scholasticism

14

Latin for ancient Roman wax portraits of deceased ancestors

imagines

14

surface for decorating or writing made of calfskin; used for manuscripts

vellum

16

shelf-like niche carved in the walls of catacomb galleries where the Christian dead were laid out

loculi

(singular: loculus)

18

a deep arch or a series of uninterrupted arches covering a space

barrel vault

19

metalworking technique wherein tiny metal grains are soldered onto a metal surface as part of the design

granulation

20

the space or void below an intersection of two vaults set at 90 degrees to one another

bay

21

Greek mythological compound beast comprised of the body of a lion with a serpent for a tail and the neck and head of a goat protruding from its side; was slain by the hero Bellerophon

chimera

22

Italian for bell tower

campanile

23

Italian for cemetery or “holy field”

campo santo

24

superrealistic portraiture

veristic

24

large icon-bearing screen separating the sanctuary from the rest of the church upon which icons are hung

iconostasis

25

reinforcing molded masonry arch that projects from a surface

rib

26

side posts of a portal or doorway

jambs

27

bands of molding or voussoirs, often carved, above a tympanum

archivolts

28

vaults constructed of a series of tangential round arches to enclose a space

barrel or tunnel vaults

30

a container for a holy relic usually fashioned out of precious materials

reliquary

31

a transverse aisle intercepting the nave of a church usually nearer the apse than the narthex

transept

32

seating area in Greek and Roman theaters and amphitheaters

cavea

32

architectural decorative treatment favored in Tuscany consisting of alternating dark and light colored stones

incrustation

34

burial mounds; specific to Etruscan architecture is the multi- chambered underground tombs carved from the living rock, a local tufa stone

tumulus

(plural: tumuli)

35

supporting center post of a lintel, often carved

trumeau

36

title of a type of Christ depicted as the universal ruler and judge of all

Pantokrator

37

subterranean networks of galleries and chambers used as cemeteries by Christians from the 2nd to 4th centuries

catacombs

39

Roman architectural device using engaged columns around a cella to give the appearance of a peripteral colonnade

pseudoperipteral

40

Etruscan female demon with wings

vanth

40

a representation of a naked cherubic child, sometimes winged

putto

(plural: putti)

41

Roman justice hall

basilica

42

French word for the wedge shaped stones set to form a true arch; the central stone at the apex is called the keystone because it holds the arch together and is the final stone to be set

voussoir

44

a covered outdoor walkway or a passageway around the apse and choir of a church’s interior

ambulatory

46

part of a basilica between the main entrance and the choir or apse

nave

47

a monastery courtyard, usually enclosed by an ambulatory

cloister

48

multistory apartment blocks

insulae

(singular: insula)

50

wedge-shaped stone that makes up the curved portion of an arch

voussoir

52

multi-storied façade of a church’s main entrance surmounted by towers

westwork

53

Italian word meaning “baked earth”; earthenware ceramic material used for sculpture and ceramics

terra cotta

55

ornamental stonework or iron bars that secure the panes of stained glass in a stained glass window

tracery

57

semi-circular space between the lintel and archivolts of a church’s portal

tympanum

58

center voussoir that sets an arch

keystone

59

Abbot of St. Denis, he was the first to apply the pointed arch consistently

Abbot Suger

60

capital ornamented with narrative carvings depicting figures and scenes

historiated capital

61

in Christian architecture, an arch that divides the nave from the choir or altar area

triumphal arch

62

a double theater built by Romans resembling two Greek theaters put together facing each other

amphitheater

63

form of government in which a religion or faith has a dominant role

Theocracy

65

French for “deceives the eye”, it describes painting that is so convincingly realistic it deceives the eye

trompe l’oeil

66

cylindrical container for women’s toiletry items

cista (cist)

68

decorative metal pin used to fasten garments, usually made of precious materials

fibula

(plural, fibulae)

69

place, often in a monastery, where illuminated manuscripts are produced

scriptoria

70

destruction of icons that took place during the Iconoclastic Conflict 726-842

iconoclasm

71

being of arch-column construction

arcuated

72

upper gallery over the inner aisle flanking the nave of a church

tribune gallery

73

lighter material that forms a vault’s panels between ribs

webbing

75

the intersection at 90 degrees of two barrel vaults, forming a bay

groin vault

76

a slender molded masonry arch that crosses the nave or aisle at a 90-degree angle

transverse rib

77

vestibule or porch entryway of a church

narthex

78

an almond-shaped glory or nimbus around Christ or another sacred figure

mandorla

79

surface for decorating or writing made of lambskin; used for manuscripts

parchment

80

illumination that resembles a carpet or textile

carpet page

81

describes the Christian formal attitude of prayer, with arms raised up

orans pose

82

sunken decorative panels in a ceiling or dome

coffers

83

in Christian architecture, an arch that divides the nave from the choir or altar area

chancel arch

85

Greek for “image”, a painting of a sacred person that is an object of veneration

icon

86

Etruscan death demon

charun

86

chapels that extend perpendicular to the aisles or chevet of a church or cathedral

radiating chapels

87

decoration of drawing or painting on the pages of a manuscript

illumination

88

the central voussoir which sets the stone arch

keystone

89

a concave, triangular piece of masonry serving as the transition support between a square configuration of walls to the base of a circular dome

pendentive

90

the “upward leading method” that is the rationale proposed by Abbot Suger to justify the use of precious materials and dazzling stained glass in sacred art and architecture in order to transport the devout to spiritual heights through the contemplation of rich material objects

anagogical method

91

initial(s) positioned near a figure that identify that figure for the viewer

ligature

92

special repository for storing the consecrated Eucharistic bread

tabernacle

93

Christ’s triumphant salvation of all souls in hell since the beginning of time which took place between His death and resurrection

anastasis (harrowing of hell)

94

List the 18 characteristics of Byzantine art

1. imperial art

2. flat, irrational space

3. use of inverted or reversed perspective and overlapping

4. immaterial bodies clad in draperies treated in a sharply linear style

5. flat, patterned draperies

6. emphasis on pattern

7. dangle-down feet

8. gold background is prevalent

9. use and/or depiction of rich, sumptuous materials

10. avoidance of naturalism as being contrary to expressing what is an entirely spiritual

concept

11. figures pushed to the front of the picture plane

12. faces typically have oversized eyes, thin classical noses, small pursed lips

13. limited cast shadows, if any

14. dispassionate or exaggerated emotionalism conveyed in gestures of unmodeled figures

15. hieratic proportions

16. emphasis on majesty, power—it’s conceptual

17. use of ligatures to label figures’ identities as they often are unrecognizable

18. “The icon aims to convey not the face, but the gaze.” -Sergei Bulgakov

95

a rib vault divided into four panels

quadripartite vault

96

small chambers hewn out of bedrock in catacombs for use as chapels

cubicula

(singular: cubiculum)

97

French for the apse of a church

chevet

98

linear design in 2-d art that consists of curving, organic rope-like lines often of uniform thickness

tracery

99

a vault formed by the intersection of two barrel vaults at right angles

groin vault

100

the area in a church where the transept intersects the nave

crossing