Test 4 Flashcards Preview

Biology 1108K > Test 4 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Test 4 Deck (151):
1

Plants are what kingdom?

Plantae

2

The plants of today's ancestors were what?

Unicellular and aquatic

3

Present day unicellular and aquatic plants?

Glaucophytes

4

Glaucophytes:
This layer is-
-present between the inner and outer membranes
-similar to cyanobacterium
-other plants lack this layer

The peptidoglycan layer

5

-Dessication
-Water transport
-Support against gravity
-Disperse gametes

The problems that were solved in order for plants to live on land

6

Some plants have _____ sperm

swimming

7

The wax covering of a leaf's epithelial cell prevents what?

The evaporation of H2O

8

The cuticle and stomata prevent what?

Water loss

9

Xylem and Phloem are what kind of tissue?

Vascular

10

What do the xylem and phloem do?

Move things around inside the plant

11

Embryophytes

Land plants

12

Sister species to vascular plants?

Hornworts

13

Sister clade to seed plants?

Monilophytes

14

Homologous trait of vascular plants?

Vascular cells

15

Derived trait of vascular plants?

Vascular system

16

Phylum? (Non-vascular)
- Liverworts
- Mosses
- Hornworts

- Hepatophyta
- Bryophyta
- Anthocerophyta

17

Phylum? (Seed plants)
- Cycads
- Ginkgo
- Gnetophytes
- Conifers
- Flowering plants

- Cycadophyta
- Ginkophyta
- Gnetophyt
- Coniferophyta
- Angiosperms

18

Sporophyte are ( n or 2n)?

Diploid

19

Gametophyte are ( n or 2n)?

Haploid

20

Gametes are produced during mitosis or meiosis?

Mitosis

21

These:
-Live where water is abundant
-Lack a vascular system
-Lack leaves, stems, and roots
-The sporophyte depends on the gametophyte
-Most are terrestrial, some in wetlands

Non-Vascular Plants

22

When it's:
-Hard to efficiently transport water and materials
-Minerals move by diffusion
-Growth is restricted

It is?

Non-Vascular

23

Instead of leaves, stems, and roots, non-vascular plants have what?

Analogous structures

24

There are no marine non-vascular ____ plants.

land

25

The evolution of tracheids enabled land colonization in what kind of plants?

Vascular

26

These are:
- The main water conducting component of the vascular system
- They have stiff cell walls for support

Tracheids

27

In vascular plants, the ____ is larger and independent of the ______.

sporophyte; gametophyte

28

Know the differences between sporophytes and gametophytes in vascular and non-vascular land plants.
-Size
-(In)dependence
-Lifespan

Gametophyte (NV)
-larger
-independent of sporophyte
-most of lifetime
Sporophyte (NV)
-smaller
-dependent on gametophyte
-least of lifetime

Gametophyte (V)
-smaller
-dependent of sporophyte
-least of lifetime
Sporophyte (V)
-larger
-independent of gametophyte
-most of lifetime

29

-Most have leafy gametophytes
--Multicellular haploid stage
--Larger, lives longer, and self-sufficient
-Sporophyte is smaller

Liverworts

30

Sexual structures in the male liverwort ?

Antheridiophore
Antheridia - Sperm

31

Sexual structures in female liverwort ?

Archegoniophore
Archegonia - egg

32

Non vascular plants require what for fertilization?

H2O

33

Liverworts:
Their (_____) have archegonia or antheridia
They require (_____) for fertilization
They can also reproduce (_____)

gametophytes; water; asexually

34

How do liverworts reproduce asexually?

1) Fragmentation
2) Gemmae cups

35

What is the purpose of what gemmae cups?

To hold gemmae, which are clumps of cells

36

These are:
-Found usually on damp, cool ground
-Form thick mats
-Stomata

Mosses

37

Some mosses have "___".

hydroids

38

What are hydroids?

They are functionally, but not structurally, similar to tracheids

39

Protonemata are ?

Found only in mosses, they are a unique developmental stage

40

What is this phase?
-Develop from spore
-Branched filament
-Chloroplasts (photosynthetic)

These describe the phase protonemata

41

These are analogous to roots and are non photosynthetic
(Mosses)

Rhizoids

42

What do sporophytes of hornworts look like?

Horns

43

What do gametophytes of hornworts resemble?

Flat plates
Relatively small (compared to liverworts)

44

Do hornworts have stomata?

Yes

45

For this plant:
-The stomata do not close, they remain open
-The stomata are used for gas exchange
--Air with CO2 enters and O2 leaves

Hornworts

46

Mosses and vascular plant stomata do what?

Open and close

47

1) Have a single large platelike chloroplast
2) Sporophytes of these come closest to being able to grow without a set limit

The characteristics that distinguish Hornworts from Liverworts and Mosses

48

Mosses and liverworts have many small, lens shaped _____.

chloroplasts

49

-Basal region of meristerm: capable of indefinite cell division
-Actually does have limit: no transport system
-Sporophyte size in ____ and _____ is limiting (due to stalk)

mosses; liverworts
Why the sporophytes of hornworts come closest to being able to grow without a set limit

50

The life cycle of plants is called?

Alternation of Generation

51

Which lives longer, the gametophyte or the sporophyte?

Sporophyte

52

Which is more prominent, the gametophyte or sporophyte?

Gametophyte

53

What are the two innovations that enable seed plants to be dominant? Why?

1) Woody stems - they allow the seed plants to grow larger
2) Seeds - they hang around for the right weather to allow them to germinate

54

The gametophytes in seed plants are _______ (unlike other plants such as ferns and mosses). What does this mean?

heterosporous
They have 2 types of spores

55

A female spore is a:
A male spore is a:

Female gametophyte
Male gametophyte

56

-Megasporangium
-Megagametophyte
-Ovule
-Seed

All describes what?

Female seed plants

57

-Microsporangium
-Microspores
-Pollen Grain
-Pollination
-Pollen Tube

All refer to what?

Male seed plants

58

-Female sporangium where the female spore is produced
-Where meiosis occurs; end product will form the gametophyte

Megasporangium

59

-Multicellular female gametophyte
-Stays within the megasporangium

Megagametophyte

60

The megasporangium + integument

Ovule

61

What does the ovule develop into (after fertilization)?

Seed

62

Male sporangium where meiosis produces microspores

Microsporangium

63

-Produced by meiosis in microsporangium
-Divide mitotically to produce male gametophyte

Microspores

64

-Male gametophyte
-Released from microsporangium

Pollen

65

-When a pollen grain lands on a sporophyte of the same species
-At this point pollen (male gametophyte) will develop further

Pollination

66

-Produced by pollen grain when it lands
-Digests tissue to reach megagametophyte
-When tube reaches megagametophyte, sperm are released and fertilization occurs

Pollen tube

67

Gymnosperms have ____ seeds.

naked

68

Ovules and seeds are NOT produced by what in gymnosperms?

Fruit tissue

69

-Heterosporous
-Spores still produced by meiosis in sporangia
--Megaspores NOT released into the environment

Gymnosperms

70

-Palm-like plants
-Evergreen
-Look like palms
-Separate male and female plants

Cycads

71

-_____ ______
-Separate male and female plants
--X and Y chromosomes (most plants don't have separate sex chromosomes)

Ginkgo biloba
Ginkgos

72

-Gnetum
-Ephedra
--Where ephedra (the stimulant) is extracted from
-Welwitschia (found in Africa)

The three genera of Gnetophytes

73

-Gametes are not motile
--Mosses, liverworts, ferns, etc are
--Not dependent on water for sexual reproduction
---Enabled adaption to different terrestrial environments

-Have cones
--Are a modified stem
--Have scales
---Are tightly clustered branches specified for reproduction

Found in extremely Dry Places

Conifers

74

-Flowers (sexual structures)
-Fruits
-Highly reduced female gametophytes (size wise)
-Ovules and seeds enclosed in carpel
-Germination of pollen on a stigma
-Double fertilization
-Endosperm
-Phloem with companion cells

The shared derived traits on angiosperms

75

Flower Anatomy:
The swollen base of the pistil, contains ovules

Ovary

76

Flower Anatomy:
Each one of these contains megasporangium

Ovule

77

Flower Anatomy:
The stalk of the pistil

Style

78

Flower Anatomy:
The top of the surface of the style that receives the pollen grains

Stigma

79

Flower Anatomy:
Made of the anther and filament, is where the microsporangium are that produce polen

Stamen

80

Flower Anatomy:
Has the pollen producing microsporangia

Anther

81

-Significant reproductive part
-Made of one or more carpels
--May or may not be completely fused

Pistil

82

-Modified leaves that enclose the ovules and seeds and includes the stigma and style
-A flower can have multiples of these

Carpel

83

Flower Anatomy:
Specialized leaves

Petals

84

Flower Anatomy:
Outer leaves of a flower (are green), all of these form a calyx that protect the immature flower in the bud

Sepal

85

Flower Anatomy:
Point of attachment between the flower and stem

Receptacle

86

When petals and sepals become indistinguishable, there are petals (the ______ petals) and ______ (the _______ petals).

interior; tepals; outer

87

A single flower is also a _____ flower.

typical

88

Grouped flowers

Inflorescence

89

The stalk of inflorescnences

Compound umbel

90

What does the center of the pistil contain?

The female gametophyte

91

These have megasporangia as well as microsporangia

Perfect flowers

92

-Angiosperms that produce 2 flower types
--A flower with only megasporangia or microsporangia
--If both flowers are on one plant or different plants
-Stamen/carpels are nonfuntional/absent

Imperfect flowers

93

-"One-housed"
-Male and female on same plant

Monoecious

94

-Two
-Male and female on different plants
-Flowers have either stamens or pistils

Dioecious

95

-Is what the ovary develops into after fertilization
-Protects the seeds
-Helps promote seed dispersal (because the mini trees would grow under the mother tree all the trees would begin competing)

Fruit

96

1) Simple
2) Aggregate
3) Multiple
4) Accessory

Types of Fruit

97

Type of Fruit
-Develops from a single carpel or several fused carpels (one pistil)
-Cherries and tomatoes, maple samaras, and corn

Simple fruit

98

Type of Fruit
-Develops from a flower with numerous simple pistils
-Blackberry, raspberry, and strawberry

Aggregate fruit

99

Type of Fruit
-Comes from an inflorescence
-Pineapple

Multiple fruit

100

Type of Fruit
-Formed from parts in addition to carpel and seeds
-Apples and pears (receptacle develops around ovary)

Accessory fruit

101

Monocots and eudicots make up what percentage of angiosperms?

97

102

Type of -cot
-Narrow leaves
-Flowers
-1 cotyledon (seed leaf)
-Include grasses, lilies, orchids, and palms

Monocots

103

Type of -cot
-Broad leaves
-Flowers
-2 cotyledons (seed leaves)
-Includes soybeans, roses, sunflowers, and maples

Eudicots

104

The root system is what?

Everything below ground

105

Roots, stems, and leaves are what kind of organs?

Vegatative

106

The shoot system is what?

Everything above ground

107

Flowers are what kind of organ?

Reproductive

108

These
-Pick up water and minerals
-Typically lack photosynthesis (even when exposed to light)

Roots

109

What are the 3 types of root systems?

-Taproot
-Fibrous
-Adventitious

110

These (type of roots)
-Can push through ground to find H2O
-Are in many eudicots
-Single, large, deep-growing
-Less prominent lateral roots
-Store nutrients

Taproots

111

These (type of roots)
-Are found in monocots and some eudicots
-Numerous thin roots (all the same diameter)
-Large surface area (great for absorbing water and nutrients)
-Cling to soil (prevent erosion)

Fibrous

112

These (type of roots)
-Much less common
-Prop roots
-Used for support
-Grow off of stems or leaves

Adventitious

113

These
-Elevate and support reproductive photosynthetic organs
Have
-Buds
-Leaves at nodes
-Internodes

Stems

114

The embryonic shoots of stems

Buds

115

The point of attachment on stems

Nodes

116

The region between two nodes on a stem

Internodes

117

Stems
-Where the leaf meets the stem
-If activated will develop into a branch

Axillary bud

118

Stems
-At tips
-Produces cells for growth

Apical bud

119

What are leaves responsible for?

Most photosynthesis

120

What is the structure of a leaf?

Blade and petiole

121

Leaf Structure
-Thin, flat structure
-Main location of photosynthesis (has most of the chloroplast)

Blade

122

Leaf Structure
-Attaches blade to stem

Petiole

123

Types of leaves?

Simple and compound

124

Leaves with a single blade

Simple

125

Leaves with multiple blades (leaflet), similar to inflorescence

Compound

126

Chloroplasts are what?

Plastids

127

These are
-Organelles in plants and algae
-Used in the production and storage of compounds
-Include: amyloplasts and chromoplasts

Chloroplasts

128

These are
-Water-filled organelles
-They maintain internal pressure of the cell (turgor pressure)
-Maintain correct pH of cell

Vacuoles

129

These are for
-Support and protection
-Are cellulose fibers
-It looks like plant cells are totally isolated

Cell walls

130

What do plasmodesmata do?

Connect neighboring cells

131

These are
-Canals lined with plasma membrane
-They link neighboring cells
-They link endoplasmic reticulum

Plasmodesmata

132

-An organized group of cells that have features in common and that works as a structural and functional unit

Tissues in plants

133

What are the three tissue systems in plants?

-Leaf
-Stem
-Root

134

What is the dermal tissue system made of?

The epidermis and single to several layers

135

The types of cells in the dermal tissue include:
-These form stomata
-These protect from water loss
-These increase surface area, for uptake of water and nutrients

-Guard cells
-Secreting cells (cuticle)
-Root hairs

136

What is considered the plant's plumbing/transport system?

The vascular tissue

137

What are the two types of vascular tissue?

Xylem and phloem

138

Vascular tissue that
-Distributes H2O and mineral ions from roots to stems and leaves

Xylem

139

Vascular tissue that
-Can perform a variety of functions (transport, support, and storage)
-Transports carbohydrates from
1) sites of production (leaves) to sites of utilization or storage
2)sites of storage to sites of utilization

Phloem

140

-Generate and get broken down so only the cell wall remains
-Conduct water and minerals after apoptosis
-Has 2 types of conducting cells (tracheary elements)
1) Tracheids (in gymnosperms, spindle shaped with holes)
2) Vessel elements in angiosperms (Have holes at ends and walls, more tube-like)

Xylem

141

-Made up of sieve tube elements
-Are alive
-Meet end to end
-Plasmodesmata at ends
-Filled with a certain kind of sap (Where maple syrup comes from)
--Water, sugar, and other solutes

Phloem

142

If it's not vascular or dermal, what kind of system is "it" a part of?

The ground tissue system

143

This system is involved with storage, support, photosynthesis, and production of defensive and attractive substances; has many types of cells.

The ground tissue system

144

Cells responsible for photosynthesis (and also the most common cell in young plants)?

Parechyma

145

Which cell is this?
-Has thin walls
-Most have large central vacuole
-Chloroplasts
-Some store starch and lipids

Parenchyma

146

What organelle stores starch?

Amyloplast

147

What cell is this?
-Flexible, supporting cells (nonwoody stems, leaf petiole; enable tissue to bend without breaking)
-Cell walls are thick at corners

Collenchyma

148

What cell is this?
-Provides rigid support
-Often die after laying down cell walls (2 types)

Sclerenchyma

149

What are the two types of cell wall sclerenchyma cells lay down?

Fiber and sclereid

150

Type of cell wall formed by sclerenchyma
-Organized into bundles

Fibers

151

Type of cell wall formed by sclerenchyma
-Packed together densely (in shells of nuts and some seed coats)
-May form clumps (called stone cells; in pears)

Sclereids