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Flashcards in Test 4 Deck (70)
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1

Macintyre asks what question?

Is patriotism a virtue ?

2

Patriotism is NOT

Mindless loyalty, a love for an idea or ideology (democracy for ex)

3

Patriotism IS

Regard for merits, loyalty exhibiting virtue, grounded in identity

4

Liberal moral theorists would argue that patriotism is

A vice.

5

Liberalism requires one to.....but patriotism requires one to...

Judge impartially

In favor of ones country

6

Alternative moral theory

Holds that patriotism is a virtue.
One never learns morality but learns the specific morality of some specific social order

7

Debt of gratitude

Socrates
We owe it to our country because it's what gave us an upbringing and gives us various protections

8

Macintyre's theories (3)

Learn morality rules in specific community

Become moral only through being taught by community

Deprived of this community we cease to be moral
M

9

Kaepernick 2 issues

Alledging a pattern of abuse on part of law enforcement

He protested by not standing during national anthem at veteran's day game. Is this unpatriotic ?

10

Prerequisite for morality

Ones allegiance to her community

11

War party

Neoconservatives

12

neoconservatives believe that

American military might should be used to promote American military ideology around the world

13

Neoconservatives supports things like

Us staying in Iraq to help build democratic government

14

Michael Moore 2 points

Don't invade other countries
Improve our own fortunes; adopts some things from other nations

15

Italy

Workers have more paid vacation time

16

France

Better school lunches than us, healthier, etc

17

Finland

Best education yet so not teach to standardized tests and very little hw

18

Gawande

Solitary confinement

19

Effects of solitary confinement

Erratic behavior, self harm, hostile

20

Evidence against SC

Prisoners of war, EEG readings, erratic behavior, harming others/themselves, hallucinations

21

Deterrent effect

SC is justified because it deters other prisoners from acting out

22

Rehabilitative theory of justice

Fix them so they don't do behavior anymore. More focused on fixing the problem, not giving a punishment

23

Retributive justice

Based on the punishment of others rather than the rehabilitation

24

POW examples (3)

John McCain Vietnam war
Terry Anderson taken hostage by Shiite militants
Chelsea manning recently attempted suicide in SC

25

Lackey

The ethics of war and peace

26

Just war theory components

Jus ad bellum
Jus in bellum
Jus post bellum

27

Jus ad bellum (4)

1)declared by proper authority
2)have identifiable goal
3)right intentions
4)moral justifications require a just cause

28

Jus ad bellum example of violations

Iraq and Kuwait violated rules because Hussein was a dictator, therefore not a proper authority

29

What does lackey say is an acceptable identified goal ?

Some change in a gov's policy, form of gov, of change with authority

30

What is Jus in bellum

Rules that govern conduct during war

31

What is jus ad bellum

Several factors that help determine if a war is justified or not

32

Principle of necessity

Part of jus in bellum

Military force that is more than the necessary amount needed to win is wrong

33

Principle of discrimination

Part of jus in bellum

Innocents should not be targeted

34

Examples of violation of jus in bellum

We kicked iraq out of Kuwait and bombed things that hurt civilians
(Violated necessity)
Dropped bomb on Hiroshima
(Violated discrimination)

35

What is Jus post bellum

Conduct between warring parties after war

36

Examples of jus post bellum

Treaty of Versailles was signed by allies but Germany was not included SO terms were imposed on Germany and they had little to no choice.

37

Rawls

50 years after Hiroshima

38

Outlaw states

Noncompliant, threaten peace by attempting to expand power or violating rights of their people

39

Rawls 6 jus in bello principles

1) democracy aims for just peace
2) democracy only fights against non-democratic states
3) must distinguish between state's leaders, soldiers, and civilians B/c only leaders are truly responsible for things
4) respect human rights
5) actions of democracy should foreshadow peace aimed for
6) means-ends reasoning should have limited scope on decisions

40

Lisa Guenther's argument

Phenomenology

Interaction with others keeps us grounded in reality
SC deprives of interactions
Deprived get paranoid, hallucinate, etc
So should not be used

41

Who is macintyre ?

Asks question of patriotism being a virtue or a vice

42

Who is gawande

Hellhole

Solitary confinement

43

Who is Douglas lackey

Ethics of war and peace
Jus ad, in, and post bellum
Principles of necessity and discrimination

44

Who is Rawls

50 years after Hiroshima
6 jus bello principles

45

Reason why American violated jus in bello principles in bombing Hiroshima (3)

War had take turn in favor of allies so no extreme crisis at time

Means end reasoning was not limited

American lives calculated to be worth more than Japanese

46

Nagel

What is wrong with terrorism ?

Terrorism is wrong because it targets innocent civilians

47

What is wrong with terrorism ?

Direct killing of combatant is justified, killing of non combatant is not justified

48

What makes it worse to kill noncombatant ?

Minimal basic respect
Collateral damage
Doctrine of double effect

49

Doctrine of double effect

Moral rules when it's okay to do good and bad. Good outweighs be bad. Some bad done for greater good

50

Principles of war in Qu'ran
War is okay if...(4)

Defense
War is equal
War ends oppression
War is for protection

51

Prohibitions in Hadith (3)

Limits on war
Cants use fire in war
Can't kill self

52

Similarities between Qu'ran's and US' vision of what makes war okay

If it ends oppression and is defense

53

Luban

Liberalism, torture, and the ticking bomb

54

Locations where torture has occurred

Guantanamo bay and abu ghraib

55

Liberals only might support torture for one reason being

Gathering intelligence

56

Qualities liberalism prizes

Strength
Dignity
Bodily autonomy

57

Torture (view of liberalism)

Makes one weak, takes dignity, invasive

58

5 aims of torture

1) torture conducted for pleasure
2) to terrorize
3) for punishment
4) to extract guilty confessions
5) gathering info to prevent future attacks

59

Kantian argument

Humans shouldn't be tortured as instruments or means
Torture treats victims as means

60

What might Kant possibly support in regards to torture ?

Torturing someone who tortured others. Would have to be a gov figure with approval of state carrying it out BC he approves of capital punishment

61

Utilitarian view on torture

Pro torture: maybe the suspect really knows something and it could save thousands
Anti torture: it doesn't work. Too much pain in the world since cause you hurt someone and everyone else will suffer too cause info was false

62

Ticking bomb scenario

Thought experiment
Someone is hiding a bomb allegedly and he's the only one with knowledge so is it right to torture him and possibly save A BUNCH of lives ?

63

Considerations for ticking bomb scenario (5)

1) probability of guiltiness
2) torturing some # of ppl with info on wanted person
3) deciding on basis of probabilities
4) torturing to win war in terror makes anyone who is there is a ticking bomb
5) why not torture families too then?

64

Estlund

On following orders in an unjust war

Can soldiers disobey orders in a war that is believed unjust?

65

Jailer v executioner analogy similarities

Your private judgement does not count as more important than state

66

Determining if something is just should

Be left for systems of democracies

67

Nazis

"Just following ordersl

68

3 views
(Disobeying)

1) if war is unjust then soldier is equivalent to murderer
2) soldiers obedience to state excuses his participation in injustice
3) estlunds view: if the state is trying to ensure that war is just then soldier is wrong to disobey

69

Justice system

The will to convict only the truly guilty based on evidence and absolve the innocent

70

Soldiers

Some orders can still be binding provided that they are a product of a legitimate and fair process