Test #4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Test #4 Deck (69):
1

Nasal Cavity/oral cavity

cleanse the air
humidify
warm

2

Pharynx

connection between nasal/oral cavity

3

Larynx

voice box/adams apple

4

esophagus

digestive system

5

epiglottis

helps cover trachea
prevents food from entering lungs

6

Rest of respiratory tract

trachea
bronchi
bronchioles
alveoli

7

goblet cells

produce mucous

8

lungs

located in thoracic cavity
each lung has a membrane pleura
surface=visceral pleura
inner=parietal pleura

9

intrapleural pressure

between membranes
prevents lungs from collapsing

10

Atmospheric pressure

air pressure outside of body
Intrapulmonary- air pressure in lungs

11

Boyle's Law

pressure of gas is inversely proportional to its volume
high to low pressure

12

Inhalation

diaphragm contracts and lowers
increase in thoracic volume
pressure outside is greater than pressure inside

13

Passive exhalation

diaphragm relaxes and moves up
thoracic volume decreases
pressure inside is greater than pressure outside
forced exhalation- abs are involved

14

Respiratory rate (f)

breathes/min (avg 15)

15

tidal volume (Vt)

gas inhaled during 1 breathe (avg 500 ml)

16

respiratory minute volume (Ve)

volume inhaled in 1 min
f x Vt

17

Alveolar Ventilation (Va)

air at the alveolar respiratory membrane per minute
f(Vt-Vd)

18

Osmosis

diffusion of water across a membrane
high to low

19

tonicity

amount of solute in a solution
Isotonic- same amount of solute
hypertonic- more solute
hypotonic- less solute

20

kidneys

remove metabolic wastes from the blood
alter pH and blood volume

21

Nephron

cellular, tube like structure
functional unit of the kidney
kidney to ureters to bladder to urethra

22

filtration

initial movement of molecules
blood and proteins can't get in

23

reabsorption

nephron back to capillaries

24

secretion

capillary into nephron after filtration
remove metabolic waste

25

urea

protein metabolism

26

uric acid

DNA metabolism

27

creatinine

protein metabolism

28

Glomerular (Bowman's) capsule

filtration

29

proximal convoluted tubule

secretion and reabsorption (PCT)
passive + active transport
reabsorb water, ions and glucose
secretion of toxins

30

nephron loop (loop of henle)

secretion and reabsorption
active transport to move NaCl into kidney medulla
depending- permeable to water
ascending- permeable to ions
makes fluid salty

31

Distal convoluted tubule (DCT)

secretion and reabsorption
secretion of any other wastes
reabsorption of water and protein
balances pH

32

collection duct

secretion and reabsorption
absorb more water (relies on gradient)

33

afferent arteriole

blood flow and glomerulus (capillary bed)

34

efferent arteriole

blood flow leaving glomerulus

35

peritubular capillaries

PCT and DCT
vasa recta capillaries

36

podocytes

feet like extensions in loop of Henle

37

Metabolic acidosis

too many protons

38

Metabolic Alkalosis

too few protons

39

Antidiuvetic Hormone

produced in pituitary gland because of dehydration
production of aquaporins

40

Glomerular filtration rate

nitrate per min (Avg 125ml/min)
Based on:
1. Blood hydrostatic pressure
2. colloid osmotic pressure (solutes in the blood)
3. Capsular pressure (avg 10mmHg towards the Nephron)
Too high- excessive urination, damage renal corpuscle
Too low- inadequate filtration, build up of toxins
KIDNEY FAILURE
GFR up, Cardio down
GFR down, Cardio Up

41

hormones

causes changes in the body

42

JGA

Juxtaglomerular apparatus (monitory GFR)

43

Juxtaglomerular cells

afferent arteriole
secrete renin in response to macula dense cells

44

Macula densa cells

distal convoluted tubule
monitors urine in DCT
1. GFR down, filtrate speed down
2. filtrate down, NaCl reabsorption up
3. Filtrate becomes more
4. JG cells relate renin

45

Process of hormones

kidney- renin- activates angiotensinogen (precursor- liver)- angiotensin 1- angiotensin 2 (by lungs)
thirst (hypothalamus), vasoconstriction, sodium+water retention (aldosterone)
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)- hypothalamus to kidneys

46

Aquaporins

more water reabsorption

47

lymphatic system

network of vessels that extend to all tissues of the body
Fluid recovery and site of immune cells

48

Capillary beds

diffusion and filtration
high blood hydrostatic pressure (BHP)
BCOP (osmotic pressure)- goes back in

49

lymph nodes

house white blood cells

50

sinuses

lymph enters the node

51

capillaries

provide oxygen for the lymph

52

Lymph flow

interstitial fluid in capillaries to lymphatic capillaries to white blood cells in lymph nodes to blood steam

53

Composition of blood

formed elements- 45%
- red/whie blood cells and platelets
Plasma- 55%
water, proteins (albumin-water balance) and nutrients

54

hematopoiesis

making white and red blood cells
bone marrow to thymus

55

stem cell

undifferentiated
does not have a specific function

56

RBC is low

tissues become oxygen deficient (hypoxia)
liver and kidney cells sense decrease in oxygen
- release erythropoietin (red) (stimulates RBC production)
NEGATIVE FEEDBACK LOOP

57

Spleen

filters dying blood cells

58

White blood cells (leukocytes)

1. phagocytosis- engulf a pathogen
2.pathogen- presentation (show immune system a foreign invader is attacking the body)
3. Kill pathogen
4. produce antibodies
5. mediating other responses (inflammation, fever)

59

Antigens

generate antibodies
"self antigens" don't trigger a response

60

blood types

describe antigens in our RBCs
A, B, Rh
Rh- either + or -

61

nonspecific defenses

attack any pathogen
external barriers (mucus membranes)
phagocytic cells (macrophage cells engulfs pathogen)

62

Tc and Th cells

Class 2- engulf foreign antigens
Class 1- get killed (cytotoxic)

63

Type 1

body cells (bladder/kidney)
"please kill me"
bacteria inside cytoplasm
Cytotoxic T cells

64

Type 2

macrophages
"hey, look what I found"
engulf anything they find
release cytokines
Helper T cells

65

cytokines

go to type 1, non specific or B cells to help out

66

B cells

direct binding to antigens
1. pathogen binds to antibody on surface
-B cell engulfs pathogen and presents antigen
2. Bind Th cell (costimulation)
-Prevents accidental activation

67

Plasma cells

goes to antibodies

68

Agglutination

antibodies interact with antigens
bacteria clumps together (easier to engulf by macrophages)
prevent pathogens from infecting cells

69

Memory T cells

stored in lymph nodes
faster response
creates IMMUNITY