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Flashcards in Test 5 Deck (73):
1

What is Anatomy?

Anatomy (from Greek "to cut apart") is the study of the structure of body parts and their relationship to each other.

2

What is Physiology?

Physiology is the study of the function of body parts (how they work).

3

What are some sub-types of anatomy?

Gross - large structures (seen with naked eye)
Regional -
Systemic -
Surface - internal structures as relate to overlying skin (eg. find pules in vein)
Microscopic -
Developmental -

4

What are some specialized branches of anatomy?

1. Pathological - structural changes associated with disease
2. Radiographic - sutdy internal structure using visualization techniques
3. Molecular biology

5

What is the difference between anatomy and physiology?

Anatomy provides us with a static image of the body’s architecture, physiology reveals the body’s dynamic nature

6

Topics of physiology include what?

Cellular and molecular events:
-chemical reactions within cells
-Physics of electric currents, blood pressure, movement (bones and muscles)

7

How are structure and function related?

They are complementary:
- Function dependent on structure
- Structure relates to function

8

What are the levels of structural organization?

1. Chemical (Atoms and molecules)
2. Cellular (smallest unit of life)
3. Tissue (similar types of cells with common function)
4. Organ (at least 2 types of tissues work together for specific function)
5. Organ System (diff. organs work together for specific purpose)
6. Organism (all structures work together to promote life)

9

What are the four basic tissue types?

- Epithelium (covers body surface and lines cavities)
- Muscle (movement)
- Connective (supports and connects organs)
- Nervous (communication)

10

What are the three body planes?

Sagittal - separates into Left and right
Frontal - separates into Anterior and Posterior
Transverse - horizontal (cuts into sections)

11

What are the terms for the two body regions?

Axial (head, neck, and trunk)
Appendicular - limbs

12

What are the two large cavities within the Axial region?

Dorsal (CNS)
Ventral

13

The dorsal cavity is further divided into which cavities? What organs do they contain?

Cranial cavity (brain)
Vertebral cavity (spinal cord)

14

The ventral cavity is further divided into which cavities? What organs do they contain?

Thoracic cavity (heart and lungs)
Abdominal cavity (digestive viscera)
Pelvic cavity (bladder, rectum, reproductive organs)

15

The thoracic cavity is further divided into which cavities?

Superior mediastinum
Pleural cavity
Pericardial cavity

16

What separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities?

the diaphragm

17

The abdominal cavity is further divided into:

quadrants: Right upper/lower, Left upper/lower(note, R and L depends on patient not observer)

18

Def: Anterior (syn?)

Toward the front of the body (ventral)

19

Def: Posterior (syn?)

Toward the back of the body (dorsal)

20

Def: Superior (syn?)

Closer to the head than another (Cranial)

21

Def: Inferior (syn?)

Closer to the abdomen or feet than another (Caudal)

22

Def: Medial

Toward the midline

23

Def: Lateral

Away from the midline

24

Def: Intermediate

Between a medial and lateral structure (midpoint)

25

Def: Proximal

Closer to the point of attachment of a limb to the trunk of the body

26

Def: Distal

Farther from body’s point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk

27

Def: Superficial (syn?)

Toward or at the body surface (External)

28

Def: Deep (syn?)

Away from the body surface (Internal)

29

What are the 11 organ systems?

• Integumentary
• Skeletal
• Muscular
• Nervous
• Cardiovascular
• Lymphatic
• Respiratory
• Digestive
• Urinary
• Endocrine
• Reproductive

30

Toward the front of the body

Anterior (ventral)

31

Toward the back of the body

Posterior (dorsal)

32

Closer to the head than another

Superior (Cranial)

33

Closer to the abdomen or feet than another

Inferior (Caudal)

34

Toward the midline

Medial

35

Away from the midline

Lateral

36

Between a medial and lateral structure (midpoint)

Intermediate

37

Closer to the body’s point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk

Proximal

38

Farther from body’s point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk

Distal

39

Toward or at the body surface

Superficial (External)

40

Away from the body surface

Deep (Internal)

41

What is the body's first line of defense?

Integumentary system

42

What is the largest organ?

Skin

43

What are the three layers of skin?

Epidermis
Dermis
Subcutaneous fat (and connective tissue)

44

The Epidermis is composed of:

stratum corneum (outtermost layer, mostly dead cells)
Basal layer (dividing keratinocytes and melanocytes)

45

The Dermis is composed of:

Collagen and elastin (ECM)
Blood vessels
some fat

46

What are the functions of bones?

Provide support and structure, and protect vital organs

47

How many bones does an adult have?

206

48

What are the three components of bone

Compact bone - strength (tightly-packed cylindrical osteons form blood vessels and pathways for spongy bone
Spongy bone - porous and lightweight (strength but not weight)
Marrow - Red (produces red blood cells, lymphatic), and yellow (fat cells)

49

What is the purpose of the muscular system?

movement and gives shape

50

How many muscles in the body?

640 (320 pairs)

51

What is the purpose of the nervous system?

Interpret info from outside world and internal organs, and make appropriate responses

52

What are the two parts of the nervous system?

Central nervous system (CNS): brain and spinal cord
Peripheral nervous system (PNS): nerves throughout rest of body (motion and sensory)

53

What are the components of the cardiovascular system?

Heart and blood vessels (arteries, arterioles, veins, venules, and capillaries)

54

Arteries

carry blood away from heart (remember Arteries=Away)

55

Veins

carry blood toward the heart (have valves to prevent backflow)

56

What is the heart beat cycle?

1. Atrial diastole (blood enters L and R atrium)
2. Blood pumped to lower ventricles
3. Ventricular systole (blood pumped into Aorta and Pulmonary Arteries)
4. Relaxation (and repeat)

57

What does blood pressure measure?

Systolic / diastolic

58

What is the purpose of the lymphatic system?

Defense

59

What are the components of of the lymphatic system?

Spleen, lymph nodes, thymus, appendix, tonsils, interstitial fluid (lymph; carries white blood cells).

60

What organ has the highest concentration of lymph in the body?

spleen (also filters blood to remove old RBC’s and produces lymphocytes)

61

What are the functions of the respiratory system?

• Intake oxygen necessary for all cell and tissue maintenance.
• Disposal of carbon dioxide

62

What is the name of the air sacs in the lungs where gas is exchange?

alveoli

63

What keeps airways clear?

Cilia in the bronchi

64

What are the functions of the digestive system?

Process food
Extract nutrients
Eliminate waste

65

What are gastric juices mostly composed of?

HCl and enzymes

66

What does the gall bladder do?

Secrete bile

67

What does the pancreas do?

produce enzymes that aid in digestion of fats, proteins, and starch

68

What are the functions of the Urinary system?

Excrete waste products
Manage water and electrolyte levels

69

Kidneys

(Posterior wall of abdomen) Filled with nephrons, which are tiny blood filtration units

70

Ureter

muscular tubes connecting kidneys to bladder

71

Bladder

Muscular sac that stores urine

72

Urethra

Expels urine via peristaltic wave contractions

73

How do water and electrolyte levels remain stable?

Partnership between the pituitary gland and the kidneys. Pituitary gland monitors water levels