Test 5 Flashcards Preview

Psychology 1030 > Test 5 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Test 5 Deck (53):
1

the more-or less predictable changes in behavior associated with increasing age.

Development

2

the field of psychology that focuses on development across the life span.

Developmental Psychology

3

systematic physical growth of the body, including the nervous system.

Maturation

4

a form of early learning that occurs in some animals during a critical period.

Imprinting

5

experiences occurring very early in development, believed by some to have lasting effects.

early experiences

6

an automatic response in which an infant turns its head toward stimulation on the cheek

rooting reflex

7

the understanding that objects continue to exist when they are not in view

object permanence

8

the abbreviated speech of 2-year-olds.

telegraphic speech

9

the psychology bonds between infants and caregivers

attachments

10

the distress experienced by infants when they are separated from their caregivers.

separation anxiety

11

according the humanists, the person one thinks one is

self

12

according to humanists, the person one wishes one were

ideal self

13

the standards used by others or ourselves in judging our worth

conditions of worth

14

according to humanists, the person one wishes one were

ideal self

15

the standards used by others or ourselves in judging our worth

conditions of worth

16

the sum total of the typical ways of acting, thinking, and feeling that makes each person different from other people

personality

17

relatively enduring patterns of behavior that are relatively consistent across situations

traits

18

Freud's theory that the origin of personality lies in the balance among the id, the ego, and the superego

psychoanalytical theory

19

that portion of the mind of which one is presently aware

conscious mind

20

the part of the mind of which we c n never be directly aware

unconscious mind

21

Sigmund Freud's theory that unpleasant information is often pushed into unconsciousness without our being aware of it

repression

22

according to Freud, the inborn part of the unconscious mind that uses the primary process to satisfy its needs and that acts according to the pleasure principle

Id

23

the energy of the life instincts of sex, hunger, and thirst

libido

24

according to Freud, that part of the mind that uses the reality principle to satisfy the id

ego

25

according to Freud, that part of the mind that opposes the desires of the id by enforcing moral restrictions and by striving to attain perfection

superego

26

according Freud, the moral inhibitions of the superego

conscience

27

the egocentric belief of preoperational children that inanimate objects are alive, as children is

animism

28

errors in understanding cause-and-effect relationships that are commonly made by preoperational children

transductive reasoning

29

playing along

solitary play

30

playing near but not with another child

parallel play

31

play that involves cooperation between two or more children

cooperative play

32

the concept understood by concrete operational children that quantity, does not change just because shape or other superficial features have changed

conservation

33

the period from onset of puberty until the beginning of adulthood

adolescence

34

the point in development at which the individual is first physically capable of sexual reproduction

puberty

35

ovulation and menstruation in females and predictions of sperm in male

primary sex characteristics

36

the first menstrual period

menarche

37

development of the breasts and hips in females; growth of the testes, broadening of the shoulders, lowered voice, and growth of the penis and facial hair in males

secondary sex characteristics

38

the rapid increase in weight and height that occurs around the onset of puberty

adolescent growth spurt

39

the period between about ages 45 and 60 in which there is a loss of capacity to sexually reproduce in woman and a decline in the reproductive capacity of men

climacteric

40

a defense mechanism in which the individual directs aggressive or sexual feelings away from the primary object to someone or something safe

displacement

41

according to Freud, the unconscious wish of all male children to kill their fathers and sexually possess their mothers

Oedipus complex

42

according to Freud, the fear of a young boy that his father will punish his sexual desire for his mother by removing his genitals

castration

43

according to Freud, the transfer of a young girl's sexual desire's from her mother to her father after she discovers she has no penis.

elctra complex

44

according to Freud, the desire of a girl to possess a penis

penis envy

45

according to Jung, the tendency of some individuals to be friendly and open to the world

extraversion

46

according to Jung, the tendency of some individuals to be shy and to focus their attention on themselves

introversion

47

the viewpoint that the most important aspects of our behavior are learned from other persons in society-family, friends, and culture

social learning theory

48

Bandura's observation that the individual's behavior and the social learning environment continually influence one another

reciprocal determination

49

according to Bandura, the perception of being capable of achieving one's goals

self-efficacy

50

according to Bandura, the process of cognitively reinforcing and punishing our own behavior, depending on whether it meets our personal standards

self regulation

51

the view that behavior is not consistent but is strongly influenced by different situations

situationism

52

the psychological view that human beings possess a innate tendency to improve and to determine their lives through the decisions they make

humanistic theory

53

our subjects perception of who we are and what we are alike

self-concept