Test #5 (final) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Test #5 (final) Deck (62):
1

Digestive system

process food, extract nutrients and eliminates waste
"Disassembly line"

2

Ingestion

intake of food

3

digestion

breakdown of food

4

absorption

uptake of nutrients

5

egestion

elimination of undigested food
motility and secretion

6

digestive tube (4 layers)

mucosa- secretion
submucosa- secretion (nervous tissue)
muscularis-motility (nervous tissue)
serosa- outer connective covering

7

salivary glands

produce saliva that help with the process
salivary amylase

8

deglutition

swallowing (pharynx and esophagus)

9

peristalsis

muscle contractions

10

stomach

food storage- 4 liters of food
mechanical digestion- grinding and pulverizing action
initial chemical digestion-primarily proteins
rugae- mucosa
muscular- 3 layers of cells

11

gastric pits

split into 2 or 3 gastric glands
1. mucous red cells secrete mucous
2.chief cells secrete pepsinogen
3. parietal cells secrete Hydrochloric acid
4. Enteroendocrine secrete release hormones
decreases pH
gastrin-stimulates parietal cells to release HCL and chief cells to release pepsinogen
histamine- release of acid
5. Chyme enters small intestine

12

duodenum

pancreatic juices./bile enter here

13

Surface area

increase absorption of nutrients
1. circular ridges (folds of tissue)
2. Villi/villus
3. microvilli
mucosa layer- crypts similar to pit

14

gastric inhibiting peptide

inhibit stomach function and promote insulin release

15

secretin

stimulate pancreas and liver, inhibit parietal cells

16

CCk

inhibits stomach, stimulate pancreas, liver and gallbladder

17

pancreas

release of juices- parasympathetic system and CCK and secretin

18

Liver/gallbladder

produces bile
bile salts- digestion
Fat emulsification
globin= reusable protein
heme= broken down into iron and bilirubin
bilirubin- toxic

19

GNC

gastric neuronal circuits
reflexes that stay within the digestive system

20

Cephalic stage

cause sight smell and thought of food
response- increase secretion in stomach
increase muscle contractions

21

Gastric pahse

food enters stomach
Afferent: mechanoreceptors
efferent: target secretions+muscle
response: increase in secretions, muscle contraction

22

Intestinal phase

food entering into small intestine
Afferent: mechanoreceptors sense stretch
efferent: neurons that target secretion
response:decrease in secretions
increase in intestinal secretions
muscle contraction in small intestine

23

Heptatic portal system

nutrients go to liver

24

portal system

2 capillary beds- villus and liver

25

Endocrine system

chemical messages
slower, indirect communication

26

nervous system

electrical and chemical signals
fast, direct communication

27

endocrine gland

secrete hormone into blood stream

28

exocrine

require a duct(tube) to transport secretions

29

hormones

steroid or protein

30

steriod

made from cholesterol
testosterone and estrogen

31

protein

polar and anionic
insulin and amino acids

32

Path of hormone

1. hormone travels through blood stream
gland to tissue
2. tissue is determined by special receptors
plasma membrane (hydrophilic)
cytoplasm (hydrophobic)
3,4,5. receptors turn on/off gene expression
receptor complex must be deactivated when finished
NEGATIVE FEEDBACK

33

pancreas

both exocrine and endocrine
exocrine-pancreatic juices
endocrine- hormones

34

insulin

related when increased blood pressure
uptake glucose

35

glucagon

released when low blood glucose
stimulates release of stored glucose

36

type 1 diabetes

auto immune system
no insulin

37

type 2 diabetes

insulin insensitivity

38

large intestine

about 1.5 meters long
takes about 9L of water

39

pituitary gland

regulates endocrine organs
anterior- synthesis own hormones
regulated by hypothalamus
posterior- secretes horses from hypothalamus

40

hypothalamic neurons

produce hormones
RH to H1 to H2 which causes a change in target tissue

41

ovary

follicular cells, oocytes, blood vessels and tissue

42

ovulation

LH and must occur in uterine tube

43

corpus luteum

cells become yellow and cholesterol goes into progesterone
LH

44

Uterus

which muscular chamber
myometrium- smooth
endometrium- cell division and growth to prepare for pregnancy

45

menstruation

shed every month if not pregnant

46

birth control

low levels of estrogen and progesterone
prevents signals for egg to mature

47

cervix

entry point of uterus

48

mucous

thick before ovulation
prevent sperm from entering
thin after ovulation
host to HPV

49

Vagina

muscular canal
receive sperm and egg

50

vaginal rugae

stimulate the penis

51

Male repro

tubes-epididymis, vas deferens, urethra
glands- seminal vesicle and prostate

52

3 types of cells

interstitial- between the tubules
germ cells- divide and become sperm
sustentacular- protect the germ cell

53

spermatogenesis

1. spermatogenic
2. sustentacular cells surround developing sperm
3. spermatogonium travels towards lumen
undergoes meiosis
4. mature sperm develops flagellum and loses its cytoplasm

54

FSH

stimulates sustentacular cells to secrete ABP

55

LH

stimulates interstitial cells to secrete testosterone

56

ABP

androgen binding peptide- transport testosterone

57

epididymis

sperm maturation and storage

58

vas deferens

tube that carries sperm to urethra

59

seminal vesicle

causes sperm to stick to walls of vagina

60

prostate gland

break down seminal vesicle fluid to sperm can swim

61

Bulhourethral gland

liquid to preejaculatory

62

penis

3 cylinders of erective tissue
smooth muscle, connective tissue, blood vessels