Test #5 - Thrombophlebitis & Vericose Veins Flashcards Preview

Nursing - Semester 2 Baby! > Test #5 - Thrombophlebitis & Vericose Veins > Flashcards

Flashcards in Test #5 - Thrombophlebitis & Vericose Veins Deck (24):
0

What is a Thrombus?

A Clot

1

What is Embolus?

Moving Clot

2

What is a Phlebo?

Vein

3

What is Phlebitis?

Inflammation of Veins (Without thrombosis)

4

What is thrombophlebitis?

Clot and Inflammation of Vein

5

What is Phlebothrombosis?

Intraluminal clot with minimal or no inflammation

6

What is DVT, PE, and VTE?

Deep Vein Thrombosis - clot in the non-superficial veins

Pulmonary Emboli - Clot in the lung

Venous Thromboembolism -

7

What are the signs and symptoms of Pulmonary Emoli?

Sudden onset of chest pain

Dyspnea, increased resp rate, fever, tachycardia, diaphoresis, cough, anxiety

8

What are some risk factors for DVT?

Surgery, esp orthopedic, trauma & fractures (esp hip and lower extremity), infections, dehydration, abrupt withdrawal of anticoagulants

Inc age, female, smoking, Birth control, IV drug use

Bed rest, immobilization/prolonged sitting or standing

Blood Dyscrasias, Diabetes

9

Patho - What are some conditions that allow thrombi to form?

Venous Stasis - Veins not moving blood, prolonged bedrest, crossing legs, being paralyzed

Hypercoagulability - Diet, smoking, BC, dehydration, certain meds and any type of hormones

Vessel Injury - Surgery, trauma, extended pressure, hypertension, diabetes, obesity

10

What is caused when platelets adhere to vessel walls @ BIFURCATIONS DEEP & SUPERFICIAL VEINS, and common sites are ileo-femoral veins, politeal veins, saphenous veins?

Thrombi

11

What are some S&S of Superficial Thrombophlebitis?

Redness

Warmth

Tenderness/Pain along vein

Induration: Close enough to surface you can touch it if you touch it is hard

Cramping

*Low risk for PE

12

What are the S&S of DVT?

UNILATERAL SWELLING (MC)

Redness

Warmth

Inflammation

Pain

Low Grade Fever

Dilated Veins

Increased Circumference

+Homan's

*S&S are less distinctive; half of patients are asymptomatic

13

What are some labs and diagnostics for DVT?

Non-Invasive Vascular Tests:
-Doppler (hand held); proximal more than distal
-Venous Ultrasound duplex scanning
-MRI/MRA

Invasive Test: Fluoroscopy with contrast media to visualize abnormalities
-Arteriography - Arterial
-Venography - Venous
-D-Dimer

14

What are the goals of DVT treatment?

Prevent extension of thrombus

15

What are some medical interventions for DVT?

Address Virchow's Triad

1. Promote Venous Return: Leg Exercises, ambulation, SCD's, TED's, post op deep breathing, elevate foot of bed

2. Treat hypercoagulability: Anticoagulants ( Coumadin, heparin), antiplatelets (ASA, plavix), avoid pillows under knees, avoid sitting too long

3.Avoid Vessel Injury: Avoid infiltration of IV's, encourage use of PICCs & ports for tong term IV tx.

16

What are the normal lab values for PT, PTT, aPTT, Platelet Count and INR?

PT: 11.0-12.5

PTT: 60-70 Sec

aPTT: 30-40 Sec

INR: 0.8-1.1

Platelet Count: 150,000-400,000

17

What are some information for IVC?

IVenaCava: Filter to get the clots, it is to get the clots and break it down into tiny peices. It doesn't just trap the clot.

18

What are some risk factors for vericose veins?

Family History of incompetent valves / Cogenital absence of valve or acquired valvular incompetence

Occupation: Prolonged standing/sitting

Obeity, pregnancy, age, gender, femail, tight garments(garter)

19

What is some pharmacology for vericose veins?

Sclerotherapy: Injection of sclerosing agent into a varicosity. The agent damages the vessel and causes aseptic thrombosis, which results in vein closure.

20

What are some S&S of vericose veins?

Asyptomatic

Dull aching pain or discomfort and heaviness that worsens in hot weather

muscle cramps

itching

Swelling

Ankle Edema

21

What are some nursing interventions for vericose veins?

TED or support hose

Elevate leg

Ensure that feet touch the floor when sitting

Move every hour

Wash skin and pat dry-DO NOT RUB

INCREASE Fiber

Teach:
to avoid tight clothes like girdles and garters
Avoid knee highs that bind at knee
Avoid crossing legs
Dangling legs
Avoid chairs that don't fit

22

What are some surgical interventions for vericose veins?

Laser (Burns to occlude vein)

Vein ligation & stripping (Tying off and removing)

Vein Ablation

23

What is some nursing care for surgery of vericose veins?

Pre-Op:
Help mark veins & baseline pulses

Post-Op:
Assess for complications
Stasis Ulcers
Monitor for bleeding
Edema
Warmth
Color
Pulses
Elevate Legs above heart even when sitting
Avoid dangling or long sitting