Test 6 Flashcards Preview

Biology 1108K > Test 6 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Test 6 Deck (131):
1

A permanent collection of stem cells

Meristems

2

Plants can grow new organs throughout their lifespan

Post-embryonic organ formation

3

Plants can:
-Allocate resources
-Grow the organs that provide the most benefit (like more leaves)

Differential growth

4

Length of plant life:
-2+ years
-Live multiple years, in each going through a reproductive cycle

Perennial

5

Length of plant life:
-2 year life cycle (only 2)
-Only flower once, then die

Biennial

6

Length of plant life:
-1 year life cycle

Annual

7

Most of these are initially dormant

Seeds

8

Plant development:
-Development on hold until the right environment conditions
-Cells are not dividing or differentiating

Seeds initially being dormant

9

Plant development:
-Develop into a seedling (sprout)
-Seeds absorb water

Germination of seeds

10

Process of absorbing water

Imbibition

11

When is germination complete?

When the radicle emerges from the seed coat

12

The embryonic root

Radicle

13

Plant development:
1) Exclude H2O and O2
-Seed coat is impermeable
2) Can't break through the seed coat
-The embryo can't break through
3) Chemical inhibition of embryonic development
-Fire: can break down inhibitors
-Leaching: chemical inhibitors

How plants stay dormant

14

What are these:
-Abrading seed coat
-Freeze thaw cycles
-Soil microbes
-Fire
-Leaching

The ways dormancy can be broken

15

1) Survival through unfavorable conditions
2) Prevents germination while on parent plant
3) Survive long distance dispersal
4) Right conditions

The advantages of dormancy

16

The general pathway of growth regulation:
Light, chemicals, gravity, etc.

Environmental cues

17

The general pathway of growth regulation:
Proteins that pick up environmental cues

Receptors

18

The general pathway of growth regulation:
Cell signaling molecules released in response to receptors being activated

Hormones

19

The general pathway of growth regulation:
-Genes are turned on or off
-Encode for proteins

Genome

20

These are:
-Regulatory compounds
-Act at low concentrations
-Act at distant sites
-Sites of production in plants are different than animals

Hormones

21

Plants produce these in many cell types

Hormones

22

Animals have specific tissues that produce these

Hormones

23

What do embryo secrete?

Gibberellins

24

Gibberellins gets secreted from which layer? Where is it located?

The aleurone layer; It surrounds the endosperm

25

What do gibberellins cause?

The production of enzymes that digest proteins and starch in endosperm

26

What does gibberellins do?

Regulate the growth of the plants and ts fruit

27

What do dwarf plants lack?

Gibberellin

28

What is produced in seeds?

Gibberellin

29

Rapid shoot elongation

Bolting

30

What are auxins?

A group of plant hormones

31

IIA (hormone)

Indoleacetic acid

32

What is IAA involved with?

Phototropism and Gravitropism

33

Growth of plants toward light

Phototropism

34

Direction of growth being determined by gravity

Gravitropism

35

Produces roots from shoot cuttings

Root initiation

36

This causes leaves to fall in the fall

Leaf abscission

37

Plants have less what in the fall?

Auxin

38

Inhibits the detachment of old leaves

Leaf abscission and auxin

39

Apical buds inhibit ancillary buds

Apical dominance

40

When you treat unfertilized plants with auxin or gibberellins and it causes fruit to develop, what does this refer to?

Fruit development

41

Name the hormone:
-Fruit ripening
-Produces apical hook: inhibits elongation

Ethylene

42

Name the hormone:
-Promote cell division
-Delay senescences (expected time of death)
-Stimulate axillary buds to grow

Cytokinin

43

Name the hormone:
-Maintains winter dormancy
-Prevent germination of seed when attached to parent

Abscisic acid

44

Name the hormone:
-Promotes growth (stem and pollen tube elongation)
-Analogous to animal steroid hormones

Brassinosteroids

45

Types of human controlled reproduction in angiosperms

Cuttings and graftings

46

Why can only eudicots be grafted?

Because of the location of vascular bundles

47

What is another way angiosperms can reproduce?

Natural asexual reproduction

48

What are the three things sexual reproduction in angiosperms involves?

Mitosis, meiosis, and alternation of generations

49

Vegetative meristems are?

Apical meristems

50

These are:
-Found at the tips of roots and stems and in buds
-Responsible for primary growth

Apical meristems

51

What can a vegetative shoot apical meristem develop into?

An inflorescence or floral meristem which no longer produces stems and leaves

52

What initiates the development of a floral or inflorescence meristems?

Photoperiodic cues

53

What are photoperiodic cues?

Long vs. short days

54

Photoperiodic cues:
-Long days

Most likely to flower in summer; day is long, night is short

55

Photoperiodic cues:
-Short days

Most likely to flower in winter; day is short, night is long

56

Sexual reproduction:
-A flower

A reproductive structure

57

Sexual reproduction:
-Modified leaves

-Carpel
-Stamen
-Petal
-Sepal

58

Sexual reproduction:
-What is at the base of the pistil?

The ovary

59

Sexual reproduction:
-Contains one or more ovaries (has ovules which develop into a seed)

Carpels

60

Sexual reproduction:
-Male part of a flower

Stamen

61

Sexual reproduction:
-Modified leaves

Petals

62

What are the two things imperfect flowers can be?

Monoecious or dioecious

63

The physical separation of individuals

Monoecious

64

Separate individuals on the same plant

Dioecious

65

When the flower has both male and female parts

Perfect

66

-The transfer of pollen from the anther to the stigma
-No water

Pollination

67

Mechanism of pollen transport:
-Occurs before the bud opens
-Direct contact between anther and stigma

Self-pollination

68

Mechanism of pollen transport:
-Flower has sticky or feather-like stigmas
-Produces lots of pollen

Wind

69

Mechanism of pollen transport:
Insects, birds, bats, etc.

Animals

70

-The rejection of pollen if it is genetically similar (only found in some plants)
-Prevents self-fertilization

Genetic self-incompatibility

71

What is genetic self-incompatibility controlled by?

A single gene

72

Which gene has multiple alleles?

The S gene

73

Self-incompatibility:
n-
2n-

Pollen
Stigma

74

What doesn't happen if the alleles match during pollination?

Germination

75

The two cells that are with the egg in the gametophyte

Synergid

76

Fertilization in angiosperms:
A) At the beginning, the pollen tube has 2 haploid cells, what are they?

A generative cell and tube cell

77

What does the tube cell enclose?

The generative cell

78

Fertilization in angiosperms:
B) What happens when the generative cell divides mitotically?

It produces 2 haploid sperm cells

79

Fertilization in angiosperms:
C) Where is sperm released from?

The pollen tube

80

Fertilization in angiosperms:
D) How many sperm are present and what do they do?

2 sperm present. The first fertilizes the egg, the second sperm unites with 2 polar nuclei to form at diploid nucleus (endosperm).

81

What is endosperm absorbed by?

Cotyledons

82

This process does not involve flowers, but instead vegetative organs.

Asexual reproduction in angiosperms

83

Vegetative organs that help angiosperms reproduce asexually are:

Runners or stolons

84

What do runners and stolons do?

Eventually develop new roots

85

Besides vegetative organs, what are runners and stolons?

Horizontal stems

86

Another way angiosperms reproduce asexually?

Bulbs

87

These are:
-Short stems with modified leaves
-New buds from axillary buds

Bulbs

88

Asexual reproduction in angiosperms:
Leaves produce new what? Which are?

Plantlets; succulents

89

Asexual reproduction in angiosperms:
Reproduce via leaves (almost a method of fragmentation)

Succulents

90

Asexual reproduction in angiosperms:
-Shoots produced by roots
--Sends underground roots, then shoots develop
-Ex: elephant ears and aspen

Suckers

91

What are the disadvantages of asexual reproduction?

-They are only efficient in a stable environment
-Decreases genetic diversity

92

(Involves asexual reproduction)
-Reproduces by suckers
-No sexual reproduction
-Dutch elm disease (a fungus that almost totally wiped out this plant from England)

English Elm (Ulmus procera)

93

A disease causing agent such as fungus, bacteria, viruses, and protists

Pathogens

94

Name the types of plant defenses

Mechanical and chemical

95

The plants cuticle is what type of defense?

Constitutive

96

Find an example

Induced

97

What do plants do to infected cells?

Seal them off

98

What happens when the plant adds more polysaccharides and extensin (a protein)

Strengthens the cell wall and blocks the plasmodesmata

99

What does the hypertensive response of plants do?

Control the infection locally

100

What's are phytoalexins and pathogenesis-related proteins

Defensive compounds

101

-An induced response
-Antibiotics
-Small molecules
-Toxic to many fungi and bacteria (also toxic to plant cells:seals off infection)
-Methods of production and actions are unclear

Phytoalexins

102

-PR proteins
-Includes enzymes (breaks down the cell wall of the pathogen. Ex: chitinase ~ breaks down fungal cell walls)
-May be alarm signals (to warn neighboring cells)
-Not a rapid response

Pathogenesis-related proteins

103

What type of response is this?
-Cells around the site of infection die

A localized response

104

What happens when the cells around the site I infection die?

It prevents the spread of the pathogen by depriving it of nutrients and surrounds the infection

105

Long term immunity in plants

Systemic acquired resistance

106

These are:
-Triggered by salicylic acid
-PR proteins (parthogenesis-related proteins)
-Increase in the resistance of the entire plant to many pathogens
-Not limited to the original pathogen
-Not limited to the original infection site
-May have a long lasting effect

Systemic acquired resistance (long term immunity in plants)

107

Animals that eat plants

Herbivores

108

When leaves are eaten and photosynthesis rates increase in the remaining leaves

Grazing

109

-Nitrogen is divided between fewer leaves
-The export of sugars and other products from leaves may increase in order for the remaining leaves to compensate for the fewer leaves that can provide nutrients to other tissues
-There is an increase in the light that gets to younger leaves

The positive effects of grazing

110

What happens when mule deer graze?

They eat 95% of the plant which grows 4 replacement stems and produces 3x more fruit

111

-Produced and used by all living things
--Proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and lipids

Primary metabolites

112

-Chemicals that attract, resist, or inhibits other organisms
-Not used for basic cellular metabolism

Secondary metabolites

113

20 of these alone are in proteins, and there are more in general

Amino acids

114

-An amino acid
-Similar to arginine
-Has 2 roles
--Nitrogen storing compounds in seeds
--Defensive role due to its similarity

Canavanine

115

What are the two things tat stress plants?

High and low temperatures

116

-Destabilizes membranes
-Denatures proteins

High temperature

117

-Causes membranes to lose fluidity
--Changes permeability

Low temperature

118

-Ice crystals form
-Damage cells and cell membranes

Freezing temperature

119

-Cold hardening
-Heat shock proteins
-Antifreeze proteins

Adaptive responses to tempperatures

120

Adaptive response:
-Repeated exposures to low (not lethal) temperature

Cold hardening

121

Adaptive response:
-Help refold proteins that get folded incorrectly or denature

Heat shock proteins

122

Adaptive response:
-Slows down the growth of ice crystals

Antifreeze proteins

123

-Plants adapted to saline habits
-Most accumulate salt
--Helps them take up more H2O from the environment
-Some have salt glands to secrete salt

Halophytes

124

How do plants deal with dry periods?

Thick cuticles and structural adaptations

125

Structural adaptation for dry periods:
-Stomatal crypts
-Reduces H2O loss due to air currents

Stomata having sunken cavities

126

Structural adaptation for dry periods:
-The slowing down of air currents

Hairs being present in the plant

127

Another adaptation for plants in climate extremes?
-Fleshy, water-storing leaves or stems
--An adaptation to the dry environment

Succulence

128

Another adaptation for plants in climate extremes?

Taproots

129

Can plants drown? If yes, how?

Yes; not enough oxygen

130

Plants in saturated ground have:
-Extensions that grow out of water into air
-Cypresses and some mangroves

Pneumatophores (knees)

131

Tissue containing air spaces

Aerenchyma