Test #6 - Immunity & Infection Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Test #6 - Immunity & Infection Deck (51):

inflammation is non-specific, what causes it?

Injury causes inflammation

"Itis" = Inflammation & not infection

The steps are always the same no matter what the cause


What is the body's goal's when relating to inflammation?

Limit tissue damage

Remove injured cells

Repair the damage

Get started immediately


What causes acute inflammation?

Caused by a micro-organism, it's usually caused by a pus-producing bacteria such as STAPH AUERUS or STRETOCOCCUS


What else causes acute inflammation?

Methicillin resistant Staph A (MRSA)

vancomycin resistant enterococcus

Nosocomial Infections


What is chronic inflammation?

te cause is not destroyed or there are repetitive bouts

Common causes: 
TB, syphilis, fungal, organisms, arthritis


What are the steps of inflammation? (6 steps)


Immdiate release of chemical mediators within seconds (histamine, bradykinin, prostaglandins)

Vessel dilation to increase capillary permeability & allow increased blood flow (esp w/histamine)

Fluid Exudate (protein, water, EBCs flow in)

Cellular exudate-EBCs (specifically neutrophils) arrive 1st, then monocytes & macrophages. They destroy foreign agents & forms waste.

Healing happens w/regeneration & scar tissue formation


What are the 5 signs of inflammation?





Loss of Function


What are some nursing interventions for inflammation?

Rest the inflammed part

Apply heat to affected part

Allow drainage of pus

Provide appropriate meds such as anti-inflammatory or antibiotics


What is immunology?

The study of the reaction of tissues of the immune system as they react to antigen stimulation

Hopefully recognizes self from non-self




What is the purpose of the immune system?

Exclude harmful agents from the body 

Recognize harmful agents w/in the body

Respond to harmful agents and dispose of them

Provide protection


What organs are involved in immunity?

(The 1st line of defense)

Undifferentiated Stem Cells
(Start life in the bone marrow. They can migrate from the bone marrow)

P.S. - A stem cell can be considered a "starter cell" or "a baby-baby"


what are thee types of immunity?





What are some hints for B&T-Cells?

B-Cells: Lymphocytes manufactured in bone marrow

B-Cell: mature in bone marrow, spleen, tonsils

B-Cells beomce T-Cells if migrate & mature in thymus

Either B-Cells or T-Cells if migrate and mature in the nodes of the lymph system


What is humoral development (antibody-mediated immunity)?

B-Cells stay in bone marrow or go to spleen

Is the antigen-antibody response

Offers immediate protection



in the Humoral response what is IgM?

Can lyse cell walls & activate compliment system

Blood marker grouping


in the Humoral response what is IgG?

Protects against bacteria/virus

Can cross placenta

Largest #


in the Humoral response what is IgE?

Responds to allergies & parasites


in the Humoral response what is IgA?

Protects mucous membranes

In all body fluids



in the Humoral response what is IgD?

Remains attached to B-Cells

Plays a key role in initiating early B-Cell response


When is Humoral immunity activated?

When bacteria invades

With mucosal tissue invaders like the cold virus and influenza

Plasma cells make the IgG


What is cell mediated development?

Undiff stem cells being in bone marrow and mature in the thymus


The thymus matures T-Cells that have specific functions, what are those T-cells?

Helper T's

Killer T's

Suppressor T's

Memory T's


How is cell-mediated immunity activated?

Chronic bacterial infection such as syphilis, TB

Viral infections such as measles, herpes, chicken pox

Fungal Infections

Parasitic Infections

it also reacts to transplanted or transformed cells such as tissue transplants or transformed cells of cancer


What is a factor that facilitates T-Cell communication?



What is a substance that inhibits viral replication (Could be virus specific). Possible also hypes the macrophages up in order to make them more powerful?



What is the syste that makes antibodies stronger, cause chemotaxis & help cause lysis of bacterial cell membrane?

Complement System


What is macrophage development?

Start as undiff stem cells in bone marrw

known as a monocyte when living in the blood

Phagocytize large particulate matter

It's role is to rid body of worn out cells & debris


What is granulocyte development (BEN)?

Start out as undiff stem cells in bone marrow AKA polymorphonuclear leukocytes AKA pollys

Can become neutrophils (phaocytic 1st responder, largest #, live 3-4 days in blod, 1-2 days in tissue, also use their eenzymes to destroy bacteria)

Neutrophils "sniff" their way to an injury.  It's also called pulled in by "chemotaxis", particularly with a bacterial infection

Mature neutrophils are called segs

Can become eosinophils (fight mainly allergies & parasites)

Can become basophils (assist w/blood movement, ie. anticoagulant)

immature neutrophils are called bands or stabs

Can become mast cells

If the # of neutrophils is down, the risk of infection is UP


What is the medical term for allergic response?



What are some nursing assessments for hypersensitivity?

Occurs within 10-30 min of exposure

Watery, itchy eyes

Rapid Pulse

Facial pain


Flaring nares














What are some interventions for hypersensitivity?

Remove from source if possible


IV Fluids

Pharmacology for hypersensitivity



Steroids (anti-inflammatory)

Benedry (Anti-hystamine)


What are some health promotions for hypersensitivity?

Teach the pt what the allergic trigger is and how to avoid it

Teach the patient to keep epi & benedryl on their person a all times and when to use it


What is infection?

The immune system is activated by pathogen

Remember that we always have inflammation with infection but it doesn't work the other way

Baby neutrophils are "bands"

Mature neutrophils are "segs"

A "shift to the left" is an increased # of babies


Antibiotics are used for infections, what do they do and what do they end with?

They interfere w/ micro-organism reproduction in different ways

End with "cidal" or "static"


What are some nursing interventions for antibiotics?

administer all of the meds at appropriate times to keep level in blood at proper therapeutic level

C&S before 1st dose

Some may take w/meals

S.E. Nausea & Diarrhea

Administer 1 hour before antacid or 2 hour after

Encourage fluids 2500-3000ml

If 2 AB are being administered for resistant strain observe for secondaary supra-infection


What are some Labs and Diagnostics for Infection?

CBC with differential

Norm: WBC's 5,000-10,000

BEN (All granular WBC's)
-Basophils cause vasodilation due to release of histamine & heparin, increase in anaphylaxis
-Eosinophils increase with allergies & parasites
-Neutrophils pulled in by chemotaxis & appear 1st with bacterial infections. Mature=segs, Babies=bands, "Shift to the left"=Infection


What is antimicrobial susceptibility & organism ID report?

Obtain before 1st dose of AB

Note the drug name w/ indicator in this infection:
R=Resistant to drug
S=Susceptible to drug
1+=Mild sensitivity to drug
3+=Best drug against bug


What are some nursing assessments for infection?

Assess immune function & infection

Age, gender, weight, surgeries & causes, current health status, VS, H&H, CBC w/Diff, nutritional status, lytes, UA, blood cultures, coag studies, hx of chronic disease or spleen/bone marrow disease, presence of invasive lines, current tx & meds (esp corticosteroids)


Wha are some nursing interventions for infection?

Monitor Temp

observe for S&S of infection

Meds as ordered

Rest periods

Balanced nutrition 

Appropriate Fluids


What are some health promotions for infection?

Proteins are the building block of repair, help with the immune response (because antibodies are proteins)

Vit-C produces collagen to help repair tissue

Zine & Multi-Vits improve immune function

Decreased serum protein limits nutrienttransport availability


What is Non-specific resistance?

the inborn power of the body to defend itsef against the invasion of infectious organisms

Is sometimes dependent on the environment

In general, implies resistance to all infections



What is species resistance?

Resistance possessed by one species of animals against certain diseasescommon to other species

Man does not contract many diseases common to lower species and many of the lower animals do not contract diseases of man

EX: Gonorrhea and Syphilis are diseases of man only


What is racal or group resistance?

Is the inherent resistance of certain races or groups of people to disease to which other races or groups are highly susceptible

When a disease organism is first introduced into a race or group of people, it is highly pathogenic or virulent

The longer a race has been exposed to a certain disease the less susceptible the race becomes

EX: Blacks are more susceptible to TB than whites


What is individual resistance?

Sometimes referred to as innate or genetic resistance

Environmental factors may also influence individual resistance

In some: The antibody or the inflammatory response may be inadequate

Ind resistance can vary rom one period of life of an in to another period.
-Conditions such as malnutrition, alcoholism, fatigue, exposure to cold and wet and the presence of some chronic disease and even psychosomatic factors (Stress) can lower the body's resistance to infection


What is the purpose of the body when relating to barriers to disease?

Protected by the unbroken skin

Secretions of the skin, including lysozyme have some bactericidal action


What protects the conjunctivae when relating to barriers to disease?

The cojuctivae are protected by the eyelids and by the continual washing action of tears which also contain bactericidal secretions


What protects the lungs when pertaining to barriers of disease?

The lungs are protected by the arrangement of bones in the nose which makes a devious passageway for air

Also protected by mucous membranes lining the respiratory tract which help trap dust and microorganisms

Organisms from the nose are expelled by sneezing and organisms from teh lungs are expelled by coughing


How are the genitalia protected when pertaining to barriers of the disease?

Protected by mucus and by acid secretions


What protects the gastrointestinal tract when pertaining to barriers to disease?

Protected to some extent by the acidity of gastricjuic and other secretions such as mucus and bile


What power does phagocystosis?

Power possessed by WBC's for engulfing foreign material including some bacteria

Neutrophils have the power of diapedesis (Leaving the circulatory system between the walls of capillaries and going out into the tissue)

Some lymphocytes and monocytes become localized in tissues

These cells phagocytize foreign partibles from the blood or lymph as it flows past them

These cells constitute the reticuloendothelium system of phagocytes and is one of the most important defense mechanisms of the body.

Lymphocytes, important in cellular immunity, are called T (Thymus) cells