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Flashcards in test 6: renal; respiratory Deck (30):
1

normal potassium level

3.5-5 mEq/L

2

hyperkalemia

N/V; diarrhea; cardia arrhythmias

3

hypokalemia

anorexia; nausea; lethargy; muscle weakness; mental confusion

4

CAIs used to treat:

glaucoma, edema, and high altitude sickness

5

crystalloids

solutions containing fluids and electrolytes that are normally found in the body
(NO proteins)

6

crystalloid treatment

for dehydration but not expand plasma volume

compensates for insensible fluid loss; replace fluids; menage specific fluid and electrolyte disturbances; promote urinary flow

7

examples of crystalloids

Normal Saline (0.9% NaCl)
half normal saline (0.45%NaCl)
hypertonic saline (3% NaCl)
Lactated ringers
D5W

8

adverse effects of crystalloids

edema (esp. peripheral & pulmonary); may dilute plasma protein; may worsen alkalosis or acidosis

9

colloids

protein substances to increase colloid osmotic pressure (COP)

10

action of colloids

move fluid from interstitial compartment to plasma compartment (when plasma protein levels are low)

11

example of colloids

Albumin 5% and 25% (from human donors)
Dextran 40, 70, 75 (glucose solution)
Hetastarch (synthetic, derived from cornstarch)

12

adverse effects of colloids

**usually safe**
many cause altered coagulation, resulting in bleeding; have NO clotting factors or oxygen-carrying capacity

13

warning with dextran

**rarely** causes anaphylaxis or renal failure

14

blood products

**must be able to carry oxygen**
increase tissue oxygenation
increase plasma volume

15

how do blood products increase colloid osmotic pressure (COP) and plasma volume

pull fluid from extracellular space into intravascular place (plasma expanders); RBC products also carry oxygen; increase body's supply of various products (such as clotting factors, hemoglobin)

16

fresh frozen plasma (FFP)

increase clotting factor levels in patients with deficiency

17

cryoprecipitate and plasma protein factors (PPF)

management of acute bleeding

(greater than 50% slow blood loss or 20% acutely)

18

packed red blood cells (PBRCs)

to increase oxygen-carrying capacity in patients with anemia, in pt with substantial hemoglobin deficits, and in patients who have lost unto 25% of their total blood volume

19

whole blood

same as PBRCs, except that whole blood is more beneficial in cases of extreme (greater than 25%) loss of blood volume because whole blood also contains plasma

contains plasma proteins, which help draw fluid back into blood vessels from surrounding tissues

20

A patient is taken to the trauma unit after a motorcycle accident. It is estimated that he has lost 30% of his blood volume and his is hypovolemic shock. The nurse anticipates a transfusion with which blood product?

whole blood

21

extracellular fluid electrolytes

sodium cations
chloride anions

22

intracellular electrolytes

potassium

23

early signs of hypokalemia

anorexia, low BP, confusion, lethargy, muscle cramps/weakness, nausea

24

late signs of hypokalemia

increased HR, neuropathy, paralytic ileus, alkalosis

25

normal sodium level

135-145 mEq/L

26

hyponatremia symptoms

27

causes of hyponatremia

same as hypokalemia; also executives perspiration, prolonged diarrhea or vomiting, or renal disorders

28

hypernatremia symptoms

>145 mEq/L

edema, hypertension, red, flushed, skin; dry, sticky mucous membranes (mouth); increased thirst; elevated temp; decreased urine output

29

causes of hypernatremia

poor renal excretion stemming from kidney malfunction; inadequate water consumption and dehydration

30

sodium is responsible for:

control of water distribution
F&E balance
osmotic pressure of body fluids
participation in acid-base balance