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Flashcards in test 7-b Deck (36):
1

most effective diuretics

high ceiling (loop) diuretics

2

which diuretic elevates plasma levels of uric acid and glucose

thiazide diuretics

3

example of carbonic diuretic

Acetazolamide (Diamox)

4

example of loop diuretic

furosamide (Lasix)

5

example of osmotic diuretic

mannitol (Osmitrol)

6

example of thiazide diuretic

hydrochlorothiazide (Hydrodiuril)

7

what can CAIs be used for

glaucoma, altitude sickness, and edema

8

what diuretic is first choice for antihypertensive?

thiazide

9

normal potassium level

3.5-5

10

hypokalemia sx

anorexia, nausea, lethargy, muscle weakness, mental confusion

11

hyperkalemia sx

n/v, diarrhea, cardiac arrhythmias

12

if a pt is taking digoxin with a diuretic, what must you teach them

monitor pulse b/c increased risk of dig toxicity

13

crystalloids

solution with electrolytes, NO proteins

14

use crystalloids for what?

maintenance fluids, promote urinary flow, manage f&e-lyte disturbances

** do not expand plasma volume so best for treating dehydration

15

example of crystalloids

0.9% NaCl--NS
0.45% NaCl--half NS
lactated ringers
D5W

16

adverse effects of crystalloids

edema (peripherally&pulmonary)
dilute plasma proteins, reducing COP
effects are short lived
prolonged infusions may works alkalosis/acidosis

17

colloids are?

protein substances that increase COP

18

what do colloids do?

move fluids from interstitial to plasma

19

example of colloids

albumin 5 and 25%
dextran 40, 70, 75
hetastarch

20

cryoprecipitate and plasma protein factors (PPF)

management of acute bleeding (greater than 50% slowly or 20% acutely)

21

fresh frozen plasma (FFP)

increase clotting factor levels in pots with deficiency

22

ECF electrolytes

Na and Cl

23

ICF electrolytes

K+

24

potassium fxn

muscle contractions, transmission of nerve impulses, regulation of heartbeat, maintain acid-bad blanace, isotonicity

25

normal sodium level

135-145

26

hyponatremia sx

stomach cramps, hypotension, V/D, seizures

27

cause of hyponatremia

same a hypokalemia; excessive sweat, diarrhea, vomiting or renal disorder

28

hypernatremia sx

edema; hypertension; red, flushed skin; dry, sticky mucus membranes, increased thirst, increased temp, decreased urine output

29

causes of hypernatremia

poor renal excretions from kidney malfunction or dehydration

30

tx of hyponatremia

oral tablets or IV- NS or lactated ringers

31

symphathomimetics

cause vasoconstrictions, shrink swollen membranes and decrease congestions

32

Dextromethorphan

acts on CNS to numb bronchi and decrease cough

33

codeine

suppresses respiratory effort

34

corticosteroids

used for attacks

can cause oral conditis

35

bronchodilators

rescue drugs--prevent exercise induced asthma

36

Beta- 2 adrenergic agonists

promote bronchodilation and suppress histamine release