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1

Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ)

ICF area, self report or physical performance

Self report (by parent)

Test construct (What does it measure?)

Measures functional age of child using 5 areas of development: Communication, Gross motor, Fine motor, Problem solving and Personal-social. Determines need for further examination. It is a screening

General info about the test (may include brief scoring summary) There is 21 questionnaires that are used at different ages called "intervals," and the administor determines the correct questionnaire for the parent to complete. The parent will fill out the 30 questions in 5 areas of development.  The administrator sums the scores in each area using yes=10, sometimes=5, and not yet=0. One plots the scores in ieach of the 5 areas and interprets the results (above, close to, or below the cutoff). When communicating results to the family it is important to focus on strengths, discuss factors affected scores, consider referral/resources, and don't use works like "fail" or "abnormal." 

 

Age range of test

1 month-66 months

Strengths/weaknesses of test or what you liked or disliked

Since it is parent reported that can often be a weakness as parents typically "over-report" their child's capabilities. If filled out accurately it can be a good screening method to capture a parents in-depth knowledge and highlights of child's strengths and concerns. I like that it was a simple test to score (2-3 minutes to score) that was fast for the parents to fill out (10-15 minutes). It is considered a highly valid, reliable, accurate, cost-effective, easy to score test. It is a great way to partner with parents and make the most of their knowledge while being fun and engaging for the children. It is a well researched and tested questionaire on a sample of diverse children.

 

 

2

Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS)

ICF area, self report or physical performance

Impairement, activity, and participation. Physical Performance

Test construct (What does it measure?)

Asses motor skills/development in infants at risk for motor delay, focusing on attaining motor milestones and components necessary to attain the milestones. 

 

General info about the test (may include brief scoring summary)

 

Takes 20-30 minutes to complete. Observing a child during play to observe 58 gross motor milestones in 4 different positions (prone, supine, sitting, standing) focused on weight-bearing, posture, and anti-gravity movement. The scorer identifies the least and most mature item observed. The items between these items represent the "motor window." Each item within the "motor window" is scored as  O=oberved, NO= not observed, and 1 point is given for each item before and observed within the motor window. The administrator sums the 4 subscales for a total score and plots it on the percentile graph to achieve a percentile ranking.

 

Age range of test

birth-18 months (or until child is able to independently walk)

 

Strength/weakness 

Some positives include that it requires minimal equipment, is a short test (20 minutes) and involves majority of observation with minimal handling. It is quick, reliable and valid measure of motor development for infants at risk for motor delay. The negatives is if you don't observe it during the assessment you can't record parental report. It can be less reliable for preemies and the percentile rank data is easily skewed.

3

PDMS

Common Pediatric Tests and Measures

Peabody Developmental Motor Scales 2nd ed (PDMS-2)

ICF area, self report or physical performance

Physical performance

Test construct (What does it measure?)

Assesses Gross-motor kills(reflexes, stationary, locomotion, object manipulation)/ fine-motor skills (grasping, visual-motor integration) of children It is a motor assessment that is NORM REFERENCED and STANDARDIZED

 

Age range of test

birth-72 months (6 years)

General info about the test (may include brief scoring summary)

Takes about an hour to perform. Is a norm-reference standardized test. 6 subtests that measure motor abilities that develop early in life. Subtests include reflexes (8 items, tested 1-11 months), stationary (30 items, measuring ability to control COG nad retain equilibrium) locomotion (89 items, measures ability to move from one place to another), object manipulation (24 items, measures ability to manipulate balls, tested on 12 months and older). 3 trials are allowed, items score 2, 1, 0. Must determine Basal (set of skills they have mastery on): Score of 2 on 3 items in a row (if not test backwards), can give credit on all skills prior. Ceiling (when you stop the test): Keep testing until score of 0 on 3 items in a row. The entry point is marked under each subtest (Use judgement to begin with success). Look at appropriate chart for age of child (Table A), and convert subtest raw scores to percentile and standard scores. Table C allows one to convert raw scores to age equivalents, and table 4.2 interprets subtest standard scores.

Strengths/weaknesses of test or what you liked or disliked

The test is highly reliable and valid and compares normative data for gross motor, fine motor, and total motor skills. It is also easy to score. A negative is that the test is very expensive and only tests normative data for children with disabilties. In addition, not all equipment is provided with the test and it only examines motor function. Another weakness I felt was that is required a lot of attention and cooperation from the child in order to test in 45-60 minutes.

4

Bruininks Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency 2nd ed (BOT-2)

Common Pediatric Tests and Measures

Age range of test

4-21 years

ICF area, self report or physical performanceTest construct (What does it measure?)

Physical Performance

General info about the test (may include brief scoring summary)

Assesses fine manual control, manual coordination, body coordination, and strength & agility (gross and fine motor composite)  

 

The test consists of 4 motor-area composites and 8 subtests, it usually takes about 10-15 minutes to complete a composite. To perform you need kit items, surface/chairs, stopwatch and a tape measure. Keep in mind you need 50 feet for a throwing line, and need to determine hand and foot preference. You test all items in each subtest (no basal and ceiling) and need to study easel item pages for administratioin detail. To score you choose norms (combined or sex specific) and convert subtest total point scores to scale scores (Table B.1 or B.2 with confidence intervals). You convert scale scores to composite standard scores and percentile ranks (Table B.4 or B.5) and use subtest total point scores to obtain afe equivalents (Table B.14 and B.15). Finally you determine descriptive category (Table C.13).

Strengths/weaknesses of test or what you liked or disliked

It is a reliable and valid test that is better for children who are dependent on verbal cueing/prompting because the examiner can cue (this could be a negative as it tends to under-ID). One can administer the complete form, short form, or select composites or subtests. However, the assessment takes 40-60 minutes to administer and has very time-consuming and complicated scoring. It also requires an open space (50 ft) and limited equipment.