Test Block 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Test Block 1 Deck (59):
1

Homeostasis

Body's ability to maintain a constant environment

2

Feedback loops

Series of reactions

3

Negative Feedback

Negate or reverse the action
ex. change the temperature of a thermostat

4

Positive Feedback

Initial change leads to a greater change
ex. size of the birth canal during delivery

5

Atoms

subatomic particles

6

atomic #

# of protons

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Ion

Atoms that have uneven protons and electrons

8

Cation

positive

9

Anion

negative

10

NaCl

Ionic bond to make salt

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Covalent

share molecules
ex. H20

12

Molecule

multiple atoms

13

Hydrogen Bonds

between polar molecules that contain hydrogen

14

Organic

contains carbon

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Monomer

Single unit

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polymer

repeating units

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Carb

immediate energy
glucose to glycogen

18

Lipids

phospholipids
fatty acids, phosphate and glycerol
Head- polar
Tails-non polar
Triglycerides- energy storage and insulation
3 fatty acid chains

19

Steroids

can go through the membrane

20

Saturated fat

all single bonds (unhealthy)

21

unsaturated fat

contain single, double, and triple bonds
omega fatty acids (essential)

22

Proteins

polymers of amino acids

23

Primary structure of proteins

sequence of amino acids
folds to make final protein shape

24

enzymes

important for physiological processes
control many reactions that help with homeostasis

25

Nucleic Acids

heredity and protein synthesis
ATGC

26

ATP

energy transfer in the body
Hydrolysis

27

Gene Expression

proteins made from DNA

28

Transcription

working cop of the gene (RNA)

29

Translation

nucleotides go into amino acids

30

Process all together

DNA
Transcription
RNA
Translation
Protein

31

molecules that can go into the membrane

non-polar
small-polar

32

Passive Transport

doesn't require energy
high to low concentration
down a gradient

33

Active Transport

Require energy
low to high concentration
involves pumps

34

Carrier mediated

protein binds to molecule moving

35

simple diffusion

travel through membrane
small, non polar

36

channel mediated

create a pore or channel through membrane
specific molecules can now diffuse
Leak- open all the time
Gated- open at specific times

37

Nervous system

nervous tissue with neurotransmitters

38

Endocrine system

secretes hormones

39

Current

flow of charged molecules
requires voltage potential

40

neurons

excitability

41

cell body

nucleus

42

dendrite

short extensions of the body
receive signals

43

axon

myelinated to improve conductivity

44

synapse

communication between neurons and a tissue

45

electrochemical gradient

Na+ and K+ molecules

46

Chemical gradient

uneven distribution of molecules

47

Electrical gradient

uneven distribution of charge

48

Resting Membrane Potential

-70mV

49

Extra Cellular Fluid

high Na+, low K+

50

Intracellular Fluid

low Na+, high K+

51

# of atoms in and out

3 sodium out
2 potassium in

52

Central Nervous System

Brain and spinal cord enclosed in body coverings
Where interneurons are located

53

Peripheral Nervous System

Ganglions and nerves

54

Multipolar

interneurons
motor neurons

55

Bipolar

Special senses

56

Unipolar

sensory information

57

Afferent (sensory) neurons

PNS to CNS
detect stimuli

58

Efferent (motor) neurons

CNS to effectors
muscles, organs, glands

59

Refractory Period

when neuron can't fire another action potential
strong local potential needed to overcome the Refractory Period