Flashcards in Test construction Deck (25):

1

## item difficulty equation

###
P = total number of examinees passing an item /

total number of examinees

a p value of 0.50 means that 50% of examinees answered the item correctly

2

## item discrimination equation

###
D = percent of examinees in the upper-scoring group that answered the item correctly

minus percent of examinees in the lower-scoring group that answered the item correctly

D value of +1.0 means that all examinees in the upper-scoring group got the item right, and none of the examinees in the lower-scoring group got it right

3

## item response theory

###
uses the item characteristic curve

ability to discriminate between high and low achievers is indicated by the slope of the curve

probably of guessing correctly is the y-intercept

4

## reliability coefficient

###
consistency of test scores

when a test has a reliability coefficient of 0.89, 89% of the variability in obtained scores is true variability

5

## Spearman-Brown prophecy formula

### provides an estimate of what the reliability coefficient would have been if it had been based on the full length of the test instead of just half the items

6

## Cronbach's coefficient alpha

###
for split-half reliability

administering a test to a single group of examinees, and using a formula to determine inter-item consistency

7

## Kuder-Richardson Formula 20

###
coefficient alpha - avg reliability obtained from all possible splits of the test

when test items are scored dichotomously (right or wrong), used to determine internal consistency

8

## kappa statistic

###
used to assess inter-rater reliability

nominal or ordinal scale of measurement

9

## alternate forms reliability

### the most thorough method for estimating reliability

10

## internal consistency reliability

### not appropriate for speed tests

11

## standard error of measurement (SEM)

###
used to construct a confidence interval around an obtained score

an index of the amount of error that can be expected in obtained scores due to the unreliability of the test

12

## standard error of estimate (SEE)

###
used to construct a confidence interval around an examinee's predicted criterion scores

an index of error when predicting criterion scores from predictor scores

13

## content validity

### to obtain information about an examinee's familiarity with a particular content or behavior domain

14

## construct validity

### to determine the extent to which an examinee possesses a particular hypothetical trait

15

## criterion-related validity

### to estimate or predict an examinee's standing or performance on an external criterion

16

## convergent and discriminant validity

### methods for assessing construct validity

17

## factor analysis

### used to identify the minimum number of common factors required to account for the intercorrelations among a set of items

18

## a squared factor loading provides a measure of ____

### shared variability

19

## when factors are orthogonal, a test's communality can be calculated by

### squaring and adding the test's factor loadings

20

## orthogonal factors are ____

### uncorrelated

21

## oblique factors are _____

### correlated

22

## concurrent and predictive validity

### associated with criterion-related validity

23

## to determine the shared variability between two different tests/variables, you ____

### square the correlation coefficient

24

## sensitivity

### the percent of people in the validation sample who have the disorder and were accurately identified as having the disorder

25