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Flashcards in Test construction Deck (25):
1

item difficulty equation

P = total number of examinees passing an item /
total number of examinees

a p value of 0.50 means that 50% of examinees answered the item correctly

2

item discrimination equation

D = percent of examinees in the upper-scoring group that answered the item correctly
minus percent of examinees in the lower-scoring group that answered the item correctly

D value of +1.0 means that all examinees in the upper-scoring group got the item right, and none of the examinees in the lower-scoring group got it right

3

item response theory

uses the item characteristic curve

ability to discriminate between high and low achievers is indicated by the slope of the curve

probably of guessing correctly is the y-intercept

4

reliability coefficient

consistency of test scores

when a test has a reliability coefficient of 0.89, 89% of the variability in obtained scores is true variability

5

Spearman-Brown prophecy formula

provides an estimate of what the reliability coefficient would have been if it had been based on the full length of the test instead of just half the items

6

Cronbach's coefficient alpha

for split-half reliability

administering a test to a single group of examinees, and using a formula to determine inter-item consistency

7

Kuder-Richardson Formula 20

coefficient alpha - avg reliability obtained from all possible splits of the test

when test items are scored dichotomously (right or wrong), used to determine internal consistency

8

kappa statistic

used to assess inter-rater reliability

nominal or ordinal scale of measurement

9

alternate forms reliability

the most thorough method for estimating reliability

10

internal consistency reliability

not appropriate for speed tests

11

standard error of measurement (SEM)

used to construct a confidence interval around an obtained score

an index of the amount of error that can be expected in obtained scores due to the unreliability of the test

12

standard error of estimate (SEE)

used to construct a confidence interval around an examinee's predicted criterion scores

an index of error when predicting criterion scores from predictor scores

13

content validity

to obtain information about an examinee's familiarity with a particular content or behavior domain

14

construct validity

to determine the extent to which an examinee possesses a particular hypothetical trait

15

criterion-related validity

to estimate or predict an examinee's standing or performance on an external criterion

16

convergent and discriminant validity

methods for assessing construct validity

17

factor analysis

used to identify the minimum number of common factors required to account for the intercorrelations among a set of items

18

a squared factor loading provides a measure of ____

shared variability

19

when factors are orthogonal, a test's communality can be calculated by

squaring and adding the test's factor loadings

20

orthogonal factors are ____

uncorrelated

21

oblique factors are _____

correlated

22

concurrent and predictive validity

associated with criterion-related validity

23

to determine the shared variability between two different tests/variables, you ____

square the correlation coefficient

24

sensitivity

the percent of people in the validation sample who have the disorder and were accurately identified as having the disorder

25

specificity

the percent of people who do not have the disorder, and were accurately identified as not having the disorder