Flashcards in Test II Deck (78):
As temperature goes up about 10˚C, ______. If it goes down about 10˚C, ________. [metabolic rate]
metabolic rate doubles, metabolic rate halves
Basal metabolic rate is for ______, standard mr is for ______. Which one has to consider temperature in addition to an empty stomach and no stress?
endotherms, ectotherms, standard mr
In humans, the thermoneutral zone is from _____ ˚C.
The thermoneutral zone is a zone where the body's
metabolism is constant. A lower temperature causes metabolism to start going to try to keep warm, for instance.
Endotherms, like _______, rely on ____ to keep warm.
birds and mammals, body regulation/metabolism
Ectotherms, like _______, rely on ____ to keep warm.
reptiles, amphibians, and fish, outside temperatures
Acclimatize is used in the ____, while acclimate is used in the _____.
T/F: Because endotherms produce 10-20x more energy/mass than ectotherms, they need 10-20x more food, they have a heart rate that is 10-20x higher, and they have a "faster, shorter" lifespan.
T/F: A lower bpm means you will live longer.
An elephant has a higher absolute metabolism, but the mouse ______. Why?
Has a higher metabolism per gram of body tissue. Because the mouse loses heat faster (greater SA to Volume ratio)
Describe convection, radiation, evaporation, and conduction
Convection is through a fluid medium, like air or blood
Conduction is through contact
Evaporation is like water
Radiation is like the sun
Huddling keeps you warm why?
It reduces SA to Volume ratio
Vasodilation and vasoconstriction. Why does vasoconstriction keep you warm?
It is where the body constricts peripheral blood vessels to keep your core warm.
Which is the better insulator and why: fur, feathers, or blubber?
Fur, because it traps air.
Animals have special blood vessels that carry heat to ____ skin surfaces.
Describe polar bear hair.
There are two types:
1) Long, white, hollow hairs that trap air,
2) Short black hairs that block U.V. light
T/F: We spend more energy on breathing than a fish.
F. A fish has to spend more energy for breathing, there are only 7 mL O2 per liter of water, but 210 mL O2 in a liter of air.
For countercurrent exchange to take place, two blood vessels must be ___. Describe cc exchange
near each other. In countercurrent exchange, the body sends warm blood to an extremity, and the cold blood that comes back towards the body afterwards is heated up by passing close by to that warm blood being sent to the extremity.
The change in metabolic rate versus increasing body mass looks
A) isometric (y=x)
B) allometric (y=√x)
What are some ways to generate heat?
Shivering, brown fat, thermogenin
What is the body's thermostat?
What is the difference between torpor and hibernation?
Torpor is a short-term decline in MO2 and temperature during inactive periods. Hibernation is more long term (basically regulated hypothermia).
Why do small animals engage in torpor?
Because being 'on' constantly would force them to forage for food almost constantly.
Unlike multi chambered stomach animals, like ______, we carnivores and humans are ______.
1 Calorie = ___ calories
We carnivores have to be able to store food, because unlike herbivores, our food sources _____
are not constant
The liver stores glucose in the form of
The most compact energy molecule to store is
What are the three phases of starving?
2) Starving, digging into glycogen reserves
3) Dying, burning amino acids
What can the body NOT store? Why?
Amino acids. They contain Nitrogen in the form of NH3, which is toxic.
What foods provide energy?
Carbohydrates, fats, and proteins
_____ amino acids cannot be synthesized - we have 8-11 of them.
Essential ______ are often in the C12 to C24 range
T/F: Vitamins are sythesizable carbon compounds.
F. They are not sythesizable.
Vitamin __ is water soluble, vitamins A, D, E, and K are ___ soluble.
The endocrine produces chemicals, or ______, which are sent through the ______ to produce a ___-term response. The chemical makes its way to ___ receptor cell.
hormones, bloodstream, long, a specific type of
A hormone can cause a cell to
1) Change membrane permeability
2) Produce new molecules
3) Undergo cell division
4) Secrete products, or undergo exocytosis
If a hormonal response is slower and longer-lived, a ______ response is quicker and more short-lived.
In negative feedback, the body works _____ a stimulus.
What organs are involved in the endocrine system?
Thyroid/parathyroid, pancreas, adrenal glands
The pituitary gland is located beneath the _______ and is divided into the _____ and _____ pituitary gland.
hypothalamus, anterior, posterior
The posterior pituitary releases ___ and ____, two hormones actually produced in the ______.
oxytocin (contractions during childbirth), ADH (produced when blood volume/pressure is low, prompts the kidney to conserve water), hypothalamus
The independent minded anterior pituitary is regulated by the hypothalamus, but produces its own hormones, including ________ and _______.
growth hormone, prolactin
The thyroid produces two hormones aptly named _____, ___, and ___, which do what?
T_3, T_4, calcitonin. Promote red blood cell production, increased heart rate and metabolic rate
Hypothyroidism is caused by what? What are its effects?Goiter is caused by what? What are its effects?
Too little thyroid hormones. It causes one to feel cold.
Not enough iodine, needed to make thyroid hormones. Swelling of the thyroid.
Where is the parathyroid located?
Embedded inside the thyroid.
What does calcitonin do and where does it target? What is its doppelgänger hormone?
It works against overly high calcium levels, targeting kidneys and bones. Parathyroid hormone, which is released when calcium levels are too low.
The pancreas produces what two hormones?
Insulin and glucagon.
Glucagon is produced by ___ cells, and helps to ____.
alpha, counteract low glucose levels by extracting it from the liver's glycogen chains
Insulin is produced by ___ cells, and helps to ____.
beta, counteract high glucose levels by sending glucose to the liver
In Type I diabetes, ___ cells are destroyed by the immune system at birth. This affects production of ___.
In Type II diabetes, cells become jaded and unresponsive to _____, and the pancreas may eventually stop making it.
Where are the adrenal glands and what do they produce? What do those hormones do?
On top of the kidneys. They produce aldosterone (counteracts low blood volume/pressure at kidneys), and stress hormones like cortisol and epinephrine and norepinephrine.
T/F: The nervous system can make a split-second reaction before adrenaline can.
T. Adrenaline is a hormone, so it's slower.
Cortisol is a flight-or-fight hormone. Why does it release glucose as part of its function? What can chronic stress end up doing because of this?
To help make ATP for the body to run or fight. Chronic stress can contribute to diabetes, then.
To exchange CO2 with O2 and nutrients, an animal has which two options?
Direct diffusion (planarian style) and a circulatory system (our style).
A circulatory system always has
1) some circulatory fluid
2) a set of interconnecting vessels
3) a pump (a heart)
An open circulatory system is found in _____. Describe it.
Insects and mollusks. Generally has blue hemocyanin+copper as its pigment. Interstitial fluid is kind of the same as the hemolymph.
A closed circulatory system is found in ____. Describe it.
Us. Closed off vessels, distinct interstitial fluid. O2 passively diffuses out from vessels. We use red pigment hemoglobin+iron.
What four organs facilitate the exchange of O2 and CO2 in animals?
gills, lungs, tracheae, or skin
Bicarbonate is a form of ____ that is basic, helping it act as a ____ to acidic ____.
CO2, buffer, CO2
Fermentation occurs in the ___ for rabbits and in the ____ for cows.
Absorption occurs in the ______
What increases the surface area of the digestive system?
Villi and microvilli
T/F: Peristalsis and antiperistalsis exist.
Carbohydrase is an ____ that ________ carbohydrates.
enzyme, breaks down
The gut cavity is called the
To move a bolus of food downward, the cells behind it ____ while those in front ____.
What does the mucosa do? The submucosa?
The mucosa is an epithelial layer secretes mucus, digestive enzymes, hormones, etc. The submucosa contains nerves, blood vessels, etc.
Two layers of smooth muscle (____ and _____) are located where?
circular, longitudinal. Just outside the submucosa
Chief cells produce ____ and parietal cells produce _____, which combine to form ____ that breaks down _____.
pepsinogen, HCl, pepsin, proteins
Phosphogen is stored in ______
The duodenum is the _____ section of the small intestine, where digestion occurs, and hormones like ____, ____, and ________ are released.
initial, gastrin, cholecystokinin, secretin
In ruminants, the true stomach is the ______.
Hemoglobin has _____ heme molecules.
HDLs are ___ lipoproteins. What do they do?
good. They move cholesterol to the liver.
LDLs are ___ lipoproteins. What do they do?
bad. Transport cholesterol in the body