Flashcards in Test III Deck (71):
Why is sunlight more intense near the equator (variability)?
It has to pierce through less atmosphere than it would at a different latitude, where the angle would be oblique.
What kind of plants are more drought tolerant and can thrive at higher temperatures?
At what latitudes does dry air converge to produce especially arid climates?
At what latitudes does moist air converge to produce high levels of rainfall?
The tropics: 30˚ N and 30˚ S.
The equator (0˚), near the arctic (60˚ N), and near the antarctic (60˚ S).
T/F: Air absorbs moisture as it travels across the earth's surface, and dries out once precipitation is released.
What three bodies of water each hold a 20% slice of the world's fresh water?
Lake Baikal, The Amazon River, and the Great Lakes.
What usually defines a terrestrial biome?
The plants that occupy it, its temperature, and its level of precipitation.
What usually defines an aquatic biome?
Light, depth, terrestrial proximity, salinity/chemistry
T/F: Disturbances are not infrequently important shapers of a climate.
T/F: Ocean temperatures tend to fall on a gradient from warm near the surface to cold near the ocean floor.
F. There is instead a narrow layer of abrupt change in temperature called the thermocline, with warm water above and cold water below.
What is the upwelling zone?
Water from deeper, aphotic waters tend to have more detritus and are more nutrient rich. The upwelling zone is when this water rises to the surface along the coast.
Name that zone!
1) Rich in nutrients, but without much light.
2) Plenty of light, but nutrient-poor.
3) Close to the coast
4) Not so close
5) The bottom of any body of water, deep or shallow
6) Any open water in a body of water, deep or shallow
On a % survivors vs. time plot, what type of survivorship curve matches its description? What creatures represent it?
1) Fairly straight line, constant rates of death.
2) High initial rates of death, then low rates of death for those who do survive
3) Low initial rates of death, then increasingly higher rates of death for older members
1) Type II (some rodents, lizards, others)
2) Type III (Oysters, fish, plants)
3) Type I (Humans, large mammals)
EQUATION Doubling time
70 / r
EQUATION Change in population size, exponential
ΔN/Δt = (r_inst.)(N)
In an exponentially growing population, r is ______, and doubling time is _______.
constant, also constant
T/F: Only females in a population are used to study reproductive rates, because only they produce offspring.
A reasonable model for population growth is ____ growth, which is limited by K, ___________.
logistic, carrying capacity
Logistic growth is feasible for populations that cycle through generations _______, but otherwise, a population might easily ______ and be forced to bear a crash in its numbers later on.
EQUATION Change in population size, logistic
ΔN/Δt = (r_inst.)(N)((K - N) / K)
In a logistically growing population, r is _________, and doubling time is _______.
Decreasing over time, increasing over time.
K type species are limited by _________, while __ type species are closer to exponential growth.
carrying capacity (K), r
________ refers to one-time reproductive producers, while ________ refers to repeated reproductive producers.
Semelparity, iteroparity (reiterate)
K species are said to be _____-dependent, while r species are said to be _______-independent.
Why does a smaller brood size result in higher survival rates for Eurasian kestrels?
Because the parents are able to take better care of the few children they do have.
K species experience ____ rates of both morbidity and fecundity, while r species experience ___ rates of morbidity and fecundity.
A high age of first reproduction is correlated with a ____ life expectancy.
The snowshoe hares and the lynxes are an example of population _____. The hares (__ species) spike in their population, only to fall back to carrying capacity. The lynx populations (__ species) spike ________ a rise in hare populations, then fall back down too as food gets scarce.
cycles, r, K, in response to
Larger populations will have a ____ risk of predation, resource competition, disease, crowding (which increases aggression and lowers fecundity), and migration.
Equilibrium density occurs when what two things are equal?
birth rate (density dependent) and death rate (density independent)
A ___________ is a group of small local populations that are linked. An example would be the Åland Island ______.
For humans, r (rate of population growth) was ______ (and doubling time was ______) until it hit a peak around 2.2. Now, it is decreasing because of ___ factors (we are choosing to wait longer before ______). Humans managed to keep r increasing because we are able to ______ our environment and thus, our carrying capacity.
Increasing, decreasing, social, reproducing, manipulate.
A community is a group of ______.
An ecological niche can include
resources, locations, moisture, light, nesting sites
What type of niche is innate, potential, soulful?
What type of niche is what actually happens?
What are some solutions to niche overlap?
- Competitive exclusion
- Resource partitioning (change behavior, realized niche)
- Character displacement (change fundamental niche over time)
Which is correct?
A) ±predator / ±prey
B) ±prey / ±predator
What interaction is -/-?
What interactions are +/-?
Predation [Snakes, owls, birds]
Parasitism [Flukes, tapeworms]
Herbivory [Cattle, sheep, manatees]
What interaction is +/+?
Mutualism [Nitrogen fixation, mycelium and trees]
T/F: A symbiotic relationship must be +/+.
F. Although all +/+ relationships are considered symbiotic, parasitism also is, since the two organisms live in proximity (though not in peace).
In ______ mimicry, a harmless species mimics a harmful one. In _____ mimicry, two undesirable species mimic each other.
Batesian "basic", Müllerian "madness"
A +/0 interaction is ____, while a 0/+ interaction is ________.
Commensalism [the hitchhiking egret benefits, the buffalo, not really]
Facilitation [benefiting others indirectly]
How do the stinging ants and the acacia tree help each other?
The acacia tree provides a place to live, nectar, and nutrients, while the stinging ants help trim surrounding plants, clear debris and fungal spores, and attack invaders.
Why don't animals eat all the plants?
Plants can defend themselves somewhat, and they are often made of cellulose, which most animals can't digest directly or even indirectly.
Species richness is just a number, but species diversity factors in both ______ and ______.
Species richness and relative abundance
The dominant species is the species that is ___________.
A keystone species ____ the most abundant and still has a profound affect on the population. The _____ eating overzealous mussel populations is an example.
is not, starfish
What is an example of an ecosystem engineer?
Trophic chains tend to be shorter because
shorter chains are less vulnerable to being disrupted, so are more stable.
T/F: Trophic cascade is usually a long-term environmental solution.
F. It is a disturbance, ecologically speaking.
Clements put forward the "______" belief, where communities were controlled by climate and geography only.
Gleason argued that it was more _____, that species acted individualistically.
What kind of disturbance is best for diversity?
Moderate, because there is enough time for species to grow and live, but not so much that one species will gain a huge advantage.
Which is faster, primary or secondary succession?
secondary, because its a recovery, not a start from scratch.
More evapotranspiration (moisture, temperature) means ____ diversity.
Stability on an island is when ______ meets ______.
A larger island will result in ___ diversity, ___ extinction.
Zoonotic diseases are diseases that
are transferred from animals to humans, like H1N1, Zika, and HIV.
A trophic pyramid features a ___% loss of energy per level increase, and a __% loss from sunlight to the primary producer level.
T/F: Primary production comes from the sun only.
F. It can also come from chemical sources, like autotrophs of sulfur in deep sea vents.
GPP (Gross primary production) is
the total amount of energy captured by primary producers
NPP (Net primary production) is
GPP - respiration (from plants, primary producers). Basically, what's left for consumers.
NEP (Net ecosystem production) is
GPP - respiration of everyone!
If NPP or NEP is negative, that means
there is some GPP that is unaccounted for.
T/F: Biomass pyramids usually, but not always, feature levels that rapidly grow far smaller than previous ones.
T/F: Bioremediation is any way used to remedy adverse biological conditions (usually detoxification).
F. It is the use of organisms specifically (plants, fungi, prokaryotes) to do that task.
T/F: Biological augmentation is the use of organisms to help combat deficiencies in an environment.
EQUATION Production efficiency
(Net secondary production x 100%) / (Assimilation of primary production).
EQUATION Trophic efficiency
(Net secondary production) / (Net primary production). Usually 1-20%
What are the three types of biodiversity?
Genetic, species, ecosystem