Flashcards in Test III Deck (91):
into the central nervous system
out of the central nervous system
cells involved in hearing
hair cells with stereo cilia and 1 kinocilium
Process of hearing, 6 steps
1) stereo cilia bend due to a pressure wave. 2) potassium channels open. 3) membrane depolarizes. 4) Calcium flows in. 5) Synpase vesicles fuse. 6) Neurotransmitters are released.
3 parts of the ear
outer, middle, inner
tube that funnels, stops at the ear drum. Once it reaches the ear drum, three bones get tapped to send vibrations thru
3 bones send wave patterns (via taps) into ovular window on the side of the chochlea
chochlea, full of fluid, now have liquid waves. Fluid moves the stereo cilia which opens channels to flood axons of sensory neurons. Amount of bend determines how "much" signal gets sent.
electrical signals from the optic nerve into afferent sensory nerves.
Vision in Insects
ommatildia - how much light comes in, great at picking up motion due to black and white. Could be btwn 100-10,000 "eyes" all in black and white for motion.
the optic nerve runs into the optic disk and there are no cells on the optic disc to perceive light so we cannot see anything.
mucuos layers trap different particles (olfactory senses)
Optimum foraging theory
only eat special stuff (kobe steak for us) when everything is excess. Otherwise eat everything you can.
molecule that you send out to be picked up by another member of the same species
muscle fibers - myofibrils that are striated due to sarcomeres.
actin and myosin working together, all muses pull, never push
thin, does not move
thick, moves forward and backward "power stroke"
4 Steps of muscle contractions
1) ATP binds. 2) ATP hydrolyzed (becomes ADP) 3) P is released (power stroke). 4) ADP is released.
1-2 nuclei, branched myofibrils, and involuntary contractions (only found in the heart)
1 nuclei, branched myofibrils, and involuntary contractions (all other involuntary muscles other than heart)
account for 60% of all muscles, multinucleated, unbranched myofibrils, and voluntary contractions.
Fast twitch muscle fibers
fast rate of contraction, little oxygen and wear out really quickly. fermentation (glycolosis) gives you 2 ATP very quickly.
Slow twitch muscle fibers
slow rate of contraction, very good endurance, tons of myoglobin (holds oxygen) slow but almost constant energy. oxidative phosphorolation (30 ATP)
coordinated movements (some circumferential muscles and some longitudinal.
muscles hold on to bones at different joints
calcium phosphate (found in extra cellular matrix)
carbs and proteins (found in extra cellular matrix)
collagen (muscles to bones)
collagen (bones to bones)
long distance communication through the blood
sending signals to the same cell
sending signals to neighboring cells
sending signals through blood and lymph
sending signals through neurons
multi steps of signals
3 different types of hormones
polypeptides, amino-acid derivatives, and steroids
bonds btwn amino acids
amino-acid derivative hormones
started as amino acids but broken down and sent off.
steroids as hormones
lipid soluble (hydrophilic) and pass through membrane easily (receptors inside of the cell)
receptor gets filled up, changes shape, sends signals to inside of the cell but the original molecule stays on the outside of the cell.
Broad spectrum antibiotics
target the cell wall of the antigen
Number 1 side effect of antibiotics
diarrhea because bacteria doesn't slow down to break down the food so everything just slides right through. Bacteria is 10x the human cells in and on the body
10% efficiency in levels of producer/consumer
so 10 pounds of corn gives you one pound of cow and ten pounds of cow gives you one pound of human...100 pounds of corn for 1 pound of human
Understanding the Endocrine System
all about homeostasis, signals move in and out and help your body respond to the environment
Meiosis (2n = 4x n) interphase
Mitosis (2n = 2x 2n) 1)budding - a piece comes off and its genetically identical. 2)fission - splitting, it breaks in half. 3)parthenogenesis - unfertilized eggs develop into off spring and they are an exact copy of DNA
3 different reproductive strategies
oviparous, viviparous, ovoviviparous
egg is kept inside until ready to be on its own
females release eggs into the environment, male releases sperm towards the egg and both are heavily dependent on timing and location
Immune Systems, 3 steps
1) keep bad stuff from entering the cell at any opening. 2) identify the problem. 3) kill anything that shouldn't be in the cell
Innate immune systems
constant, neutrophils, mast cells, and macrophage
control blood flow
kill and recruit help (phagocytosis)
oxygen transport to tissue via iron, carbon dioxide from tissues back to lungs. Main goal is cellular respiration (12-15 times multiplier
immune functions: neutrophils, mast cells, macrophages, and lymphocytes
adaptive and very specific. T-cells, B-cells, and NK cells
any invader that initiates the immune system
mature in the thymus and triggered by B-cells
mature in the bone marrow and are the first to recognize antigens. Once they are activated they differentiate into memory cells and a clone army
4 rules for lymphocytes
1) all are produced in the bone marrow. 2)mature in different places. 3) circulate through blood and lymph. 4) Need activation via antigens
What happens for HIV to become AIDS?
T-cell level drops to low so you loose immunity
essentially preloading your immune system. This preps your adaptive immune system.
take a little piece, introduce it to your body, and then develop memory cells. EX: hepatitis B and the flu
chemically kill (deactivate) the virus and then introduce the entire virus. EX hepatitis A and polio
weakened or diluted viruses
over-reactions to antigens
specific antigens that cause allergies
body thinks itself is an antigen and attacks itself.
relationship between species and environment
Cost benefit analysis
what does it cost me and what do i get out of it. ALL driven by food and sex
Who/What/Where should I...Eat
optimal foraging theory (whats its cost? is it in excess?)
Who/What/Where should I...Mate with?
Intersex - female chooses the mate. Intrasex - males fight other males for rights to females
Who/What/Where should I...Live
migrate or settle?
Who/What/Where should I...communicate
pheromones? (ants) dances? (bees) talk? (humans)
Who/What/Where should I...cooperate
altruism - give something to the group and not get anything back
giving back to someone else for the betterment of the group at the cost of the individual
Levels of organization
molecules, tissues/organs, individuals, populations, community, and ecosystems
groups of same species (reproduction is possible)
group of populations in a given area
groups of communities
food, water, shelter, and sex
4 factors: birth, death, immigration, and emmigration
number of females produced by each female
how much of a population can be sustained?
specific environment for individuals to thrive
competitive exclusion principle
fighting for a resource, winner stays and the loser goes. No 2 organisms fill the same niche at the same time