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Flashcards in Test III Deck (91):
1

Afferent

into the central nervous system

2

Efferent

out of the central nervous system

3

cells involved in hearing

hair cells with stereo cilia and 1 kinocilium

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Process of hearing, 6 steps

1) stereo cilia bend due to a pressure wave. 2) potassium channels open. 3) membrane depolarizes. 4) Calcium flows in. 5) Synpase vesicles fuse. 6) Neurotransmitters are released.

5

3 parts of the ear

outer, middle, inner

6

Outer Ear

tube that funnels, stops at the ear drum. Once it reaches the ear drum, three bones get tapped to send vibrations thru

7

Middle Ear

3 bones send wave patterns (via taps) into ovular window on the side of the chochlea

8

Inner Ear

chochlea, full of fluid, now have liquid waves. Fluid moves the stereo cilia which opens channels to flood axons of sensory neurons. Amount of bend determines how "much" signal gets sent.

9

Vision

electrical signals from the optic nerve into afferent sensory nerves.

10

Vision in Insects

ommatildia - how much light comes in, great at picking up motion due to black and white. Could be btwn 100-10,000 "eyes" all in black and white for motion.

11

blindspot

the optic nerve runs into the optic disk and there are no cells on the optic disc to perceive light so we cannot see anything.

12

Smell

mucuos layers trap different particles (olfactory senses)

13

Optimum foraging theory

only eat special stuff (kobe steak for us) when everything is excess. Otherwise eat everything you can.

14

Pheromone

molecule that you send out to be picked up by another member of the same species

15

Muscles

muscle fibers - myofibrils that are striated due to sarcomeres.

16

sarcomere

actin and myosin working together, all muses pull, never push

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actin

thin, does not move

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myosin

thick, moves forward and backward "power stroke"

19

4 Steps of muscle contractions

1) ATP binds. 2) ATP hydrolyzed (becomes ADP) 3) P is released (power stroke). 4) ADP is released.

20

Cardiac Muscles

1-2 nuclei, branched myofibrils, and involuntary contractions (only found in the heart)

21

Smooth Muscles

1 nuclei, branched myofibrils, and involuntary contractions (all other involuntary muscles other than heart)

22

Skeletal Muscles

account for 60% of all muscles, multinucleated, unbranched myofibrils, and voluntary contractions.

23

Fast twitch muscle fibers

fast rate of contraction, little oxygen and wear out really quickly. fermentation (glycolosis) gives you 2 ATP very quickly.

24

Slow twitch muscle fibers

slow rate of contraction, very good endurance, tons of myoglobin (holds oxygen) slow but almost constant energy. oxidative phosphorolation (30 ATP)

25

hydrostatic skeleton

coordinated movements (some circumferential muscles and some longitudinal.

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exoskeleton

muscles hold on to bones at different joints

27

bones

calcium phosphate (found in extra cellular matrix)

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cartilage

carbs and proteins (found in extra cellular matrix)

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tendons

collagen (muscles to bones)

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ligaments

collagen (bones to bones)

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hormones

long distance communication through the blood

32

autocrine

sending signals to the same cell

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paracrine

sending signals to neighboring cells

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endocrine

sending signals through blood and lymph

35

neural

sending signals through neurons

36

neuroendocrine

multi steps of signals

37

3 different types of hormones

polypeptides, amino-acid derivatives, and steroids

38

polypeptide hormones

bonds btwn amino acids

39

amino-acid derivative hormones

started as amino acids but broken down and sent off.

40

steroids as hormones

lipid soluble (hydrophilic) and pass through membrane easily (receptors inside of the cell)

41

cascade effect

receptor gets filled up, changes shape, sends signals to inside of the cell but the original molecule stays on the outside of the cell.

42

Broad spectrum antibiotics

target the cell wall of the antigen

43

Number 1 side effect of antibiotics

diarrhea because bacteria doesn't slow down to break down the food so everything just slides right through. Bacteria is 10x the human cells in and on the body

44

10% efficiency in levels of producer/consumer

so 10 pounds of corn gives you one pound of cow and ten pounds of cow gives you one pound of human...100 pounds of corn for 1 pound of human

45

Understanding the Endocrine System

all about homeostasis, signals move in and out and help your body respond to the environment

46

Sexual Reproduction

Meiosis (2n = 4x n) interphase

47

Asexual Reproduction

Mitosis (2n = 2x 2n) 1)budding - a piece comes off and its genetically identical. 2)fission - splitting, it breaks in half. 3)parthenogenesis - unfertilized eggs develop into off spring and they are an exact copy of DNA

48

3 different reproductive strategies

oviparous, viviparous, ovoviviparous

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oviparous

laying eggs

50

viviparous

live births

51

ovoviviparous

egg is kept inside until ready to be on its own

52

External reproduction

females release eggs into the environment, male releases sperm towards the egg and both are heavily dependent on timing and location

53

Immune Systems, 3 steps

1) keep bad stuff from entering the cell at any opening. 2) identify the problem. 3) kill anything that shouldn't be in the cell

54

Innate immune systems

constant, neutrophils, mast cells, and macrophage

55

neutrophils

kill things

56

mast cells

control blood flow

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macrophages

kill and recruit help (phagocytosis)

58

RBC's

oxygen transport to tissue via iron, carbon dioxide from tissues back to lungs. Main goal is cellular respiration (12-15 times multiplier

59

WBC's

immune functions: neutrophils, mast cells, macrophages, and lymphocytes

60

lymphocytes

adaptive and very specific. T-cells, B-cells, and NK cells

61

Antigens

any invader that initiates the immune system

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T-cells

mature in the thymus and triggered by B-cells

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B-cells

mature in the bone marrow and are the first to recognize antigens. Once they are activated they differentiate into memory cells and a clone army

64

4 rules for lymphocytes

1) all are produced in the bone marrow. 2)mature in different places. 3) circulate through blood and lymph. 4) Need activation via antigens

65

What happens for HIV to become AIDS?

T-cell level drops to low so you loose immunity

66

Vaccines

essentially preloading your immune system. This preps your adaptive immune system.

67

subunit vaccines

take a little piece, introduce it to your body, and then develop memory cells. EX: hepatitis B and the flu

68

inactivated vaccines

chemically kill (deactivate) the virus and then introduce the entire virus. EX hepatitis A and polio

69

attenuated vaccines

weakened or diluted viruses

70

Allergies

over-reactions to antigens

71

Allergens

specific antigens that cause allergies

72

Autoimmune disease

body thinks itself is an antigen and attacks itself.

73

Ecology

relationship between species and environment

74

Cost benefit analysis

what does it cost me and what do i get out of it. ALL driven by food and sex

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Who/What/Where should I...Eat

optimal foraging theory (whats its cost? is it in excess?)

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Who/What/Where should I...Mate with?

Intersex - female chooses the mate. Intrasex - males fight other males for rights to females

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Who/What/Where should I...Live

migrate or settle?

78

Who/What/Where should I...communicate

pheromones? (ants) dances? (bees) talk? (humans)

79

Who/What/Where should I...cooperate

altruism - give something to the group and not get anything back

80

Reciprocal altruism

giving back to someone else for the betterment of the group at the cost of the individual

81

Levels of organization

molecules, tissues/organs, individuals, populations, community, and ecosystems

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populations

groups of same species (reproduction is possible)

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community

group of populations in a given area

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ecosystems

groups of communities

85

4 essentials

food, water, shelter, and sex

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population density

4 factors: birth, death, immigration, and emmigration

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fecundity

number of females produced by each female

88

carrying capacity

how much of a population can be sustained?

89

niche

specific environment for individuals to thrive

90

competitive exclusion principle

fighting for a resource, winner stays and the loser goes. No 2 organisms fill the same niche at the same time

91

Keystone Species

species with the most impact on an environment, has a small bio-mass to impact ratio.