Test on Thursday March 24, 2016 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Test on Thursday March 24, 2016 Deck (172):
1

What provinces are concentrated with softwoods? 2 where?

They are concentrated in eastern Canada.
Mainly in Québec et Ontario

2

List the 3 main groups of minerals found in Canada.

Metallic Minerals


Fossil Minerals


Industrial Minerals

3

What 3 types of logging are there?

Clear cut logging

Shelter wood logging

Selective cutting

4

What are Metallic Minerals and give 3 examples.

When refined minerals give us metals

Ex:
Gold

Silver

Iron

5

What are Industrial Minerals and give 4 examples.

All things that are mined that are not Fossil or Metallic.

Ex:
Sand,

Asbestos,

Potash,

Gypsum,

Soap stone,

Diamond,

6

What are Fossil Minerals (3).

Any mineral that can be burned to produce energy

In the 1800's, coal was important because it was the most widely used energy source.

Recently, oil and gas have replaced many coal uses.

7

How can Geologists determine if an area has potential to be mined? (4)

They can go over an area using a machine called the Magnometer, (It checks for magnetic fields produced by the minerals)

They can use satellite images and/or aerial photos ---All data they collected is analyze using GIS technology

They can go directly to the area to collect samples --- water and rock ---.

====================================
If everything looks good, Geologists can take core samples to find out more about the potential

8

What is shelter wood logging? 3

This method involves clear cutting PARTS of the forest, however small groups of old-
growth forest are left intact so their seeds can naturally regenerate the logged area.

Although shelterwood cutting still scars the landscape, damages animal habitat, etc., it
does allow sections of the forest to survive and remain intact, while logged areas are still easily accessible.

It’s a good compromise…

9

What is done first after the Geologists confirmed the area is good for mining?

A town is built for miners

10

What is clear cut logging?

Clear-cut logging is the cheapest, fastest, most common method.

Every tree within a specified area is removed
and a barren landscape is left behind.

Clear cut areas are usually replanted, BUT the
new forest will be the same size and species,
(making it easier to log again in the future when the
trees reach maturity).

11

What are the three types of mining that can be done?

Strip Mining

Open pit

Shaft (Underground Mining)

12

What is Shaft Mining? (4)

In this case a tunnel called an adit, or a shaft, is dug into the earth.

The surface containing the ore, called a face, is drilled and loaded with explosives.

Following blasting, the broken ore is loaded into trucks and taken to the surface.

13

What is the law of Supply? In the law of Supply and Demand

The law of supply states that the quantity of goods supplied (i.e., the amount owners or producers offer for sale) rises as the market price rises, and falls as the price falls.

14

How many percent of Canada's trees are deciduous?

63%

15

What is Open pit Mining? (3)

Open Pit mines involve digging large open holes in the ground as opposed to a small shaft in hard rock mining.

Strip Mining is very similar to open pit mining however the hole are much shallower.

Open pit and stip mines are very large and can devastate the surrounding landscape.

17

What is Strip Mining? (2)

Strip Mining is very similar to open pit mining however the hole are much shallower.

Open pit and stip mines are very large and can devastate the surrounding landscape.

18

What does the removal of all plant species lead to? (When clear cut logging)

Severe erosion / landslides
Loss of animal habitat
Scaring of the landscape (loss of tourism, etc.)
Loss of many unique aspects of the forest ecosystem.

19

What is Selective Cutting? 3

This method consists of harvesting only individual trees of desired size, type or quality.

This method is much less disruptive to
the forest environment, but it also takes more time, care and therefore $money$,
as each tree must be selected, marked and then accessed, in order to be cut.

As a result, this method is rarely used by
logging corporations…

20

What are the 4 main steps used in order to extract minerals from the ore?

- milling (blasting rock)

- concentration (add chemicals)

- smelting (melt it down)

-refining (final purification or ore)

21

Are softwoods deciduous or coniferous?

Coniferous because Deciduous are hard woods

22

What is Milling when it comes to extracting minerals from the ore?

–Separates the mineral from some ofthe waste rock

23

What three provinces mostly produce Hydro power?

Manitoba, Ontario and British Columbia

24

What is Smelting when it comes to extracting minerals from the ore? (4)

–Ore concentrate and a substance called flux are melted together

–The flux binds with all the waste material and the pure minerals float to the top of the mixture

–The minerals are then skimmed off the top and poured into molds

–This process is very expensive and may be done off site.

25

What are the three main ways we produce electricity in Canada?

Hydro, Wind and Nuclear

26

What is Concentration when it comes to extracting minerals from the ore?

==============
TO BE FILLED OUT
==============

27

What is Refinery when it comes to extracting minerals from the ore?

==============
TO BE FILLED OUT
==============

28

What province dominates the lumber industry?

British Columbia

29

What happens to Waste Materials after the Milling and Smelting are done? (3)

Tailings are a mixture of water, chemicals and rock particles

They are extremely poisonous

Tailings are kept in tailing ponds that are specially designed to contain the waste

30

What are Waste Materials called after the Milling and Smelting are done?

Tailings

31

Are hardwoods deciduous or coniferous?

Deciduous because Coniferous trees are too soft

32

How does British Columbia dominate the lumber industry?

Because the woods in the West Coast are large and valuable.

33

What two countries have more wood than Canada?

Russia and Brazil

34

What is lumber used for? 5

Timber,

Cedar shingles,

Hockey sticks,

Baseball bats,

Plywood,

35

What are the uses of pulp and paper? 3

Newspaper,

Books,

Cardboard

36

What wood type are softwoods?

Coniferous trees

37

Forest coverage in Canada is close to what of Canada's total land area?

HALF

38

Pulp and paper are found in almost ALL of the province except for what province?

PEI

39

What are the three main types of trees in Canada?

Deciduous

Coniferous

Mixed

40

What are softwoods generally used for?

Pulp and paper

41

Why won't Non-Commercial Forests be logged? 2

- They are SMALL and grow SLOWLY (in the North where it’s cold and dry)

- Far from the markets and so
transporting them would be DIFFICULT and EXPENSIVE

42

Over what of the trees or lumber are sold to other countries around the world?

HALF

43

What forest are most of the logging occurs?

Commercial Forest

44

Explain a situation where the law of Supply and Demand affects us in real life?

Athletes who play really good are low in supply but high in demand. It is why they are paid a lot of money.

44

What is the law of Demand? In the law of Supply and Demand?

The law of demand states that the quantity of goods demanded falls as the price rises, and vice versa.

45

How many percent of Canada's trees are mixed?

15%

46

1 out of what number do people depend on the forest industry?

1 out of 16

47

Where are Commercial Forests harvested profitably? 2

In warmer, WETTER areas of Canada (South), where trees grow quickly

Near transportation routes(Railways, roads, etc.) for shipping lumber.

48

How many percent of Canada's trees are coniferous?

63%

49

Why are cutting trees in Commercial Forests profitable?

Because they can be harvested relatively easily and cheaply

50

How much money does the forest industry produce per year?

$80 billion

51

What happens during Milling?

Separates the mineral from some of the waste rock

Usually done on site

52

Where are most minerals found?

Most mineral deposits are found in remote areas therefore towns need to be built for the miners.

53

What is open pit mining?

Open Pit mines involve digging large open holes in the ground as opposed to a small shaft in hard rock mining.

Open pit and stip mines are very large and can devastate the surrounding landscape.

54

How can Geologist find the mineral deposits? 5

Going over an area with a machine called a magnetometer – it checks for magnetic fields produced by the minerals

They can use satellite images and areal photos

All the data they collect is analyzed using GIS

They also go directly to the area to collect samples – water and rock

If everything looks good they take core samples to find out what is in the area

55

In Approximately how many people across Canada work in the mining and mineral processing industries?

Approximately 375,000 people across Canada work in the mining and mineral processing industries.

56

What happens during Smelting? 4

Ore concentrate and a substance called flux are melted together

The flux binds with all the waste material and the pure minerals float to the top of the mixture

The minerals are then skimmed off the top and poured into molds

This process is very expensive and may be done off site.

57

What is Strip mining?

Strip Mining is very similar to open pit mining however the hole are much shallower.

Open pit and stip mines are very large and can devastate the surrounding landscape.

58

How many types of minerals and metals does Canada produce?

60

59

Why do people in mining enjoy the highest wages and salaries of all industrial sectors in Canada?

Because they receive an average annual pay exceeding $100,000, which surpassed the average earnings of workers in forestry, manufacturing, finance and construction by a range of $21,000 to $33,000 for those sectors.

60

What are Issues Facing the Mining Industry?

Negative impact on the environment

50% of the minerals are exported to other countries before they are processed – leads to a loss of jobs

Because the industry relies on exports they are greatly effected by what is going on in other countries

The highest quality reserves are being exhausted

New mineral deposits are being discovered in other countries

61

Where are tailings kept?

Tailings are kept in tailing ponds that are specially designed to contain the waste

62

How much money did mining contributed to Canada's GDP? in 2014

$57 billion

63

What mineral category are we first in globally?

Potash

64

What are the composition of tailings?

Tailings are a mixture of water, chemicals and rock particles

They are extremely poisonous

65

What are the process of Shaft mining? 4

Some ore bodies are more economically mined using underground methods.

In this case a tunnel called an adit, or a shaft, is dug into the earth.

The surface containing the ore, called a face, is drilled and loaded with explosives.

Following blasting, the broken ore is loaded into trucks and taken to the surface.

66

What industry sectors in Canada do people enjoy the highest wages and salaries out of all the industry sectors in Canada?

The mining sector

67

What mineral category are we second in globally? 2

uranium and niobium

68

What does GDP stand for?

Gross Domestic Product

69

What private sector in Canada is the largest employer of aboriginal people on a proportional basis, which is poised to increase even more?

Mining

70

When are minerals only mined?

Minerals are only mined if they are found in concentrations that make them economically viable

Minerals that are economically viable to mine are called mineral reserves

Confirmed by a geologist

71

What mineral category are we third in globally? 4

cobalt,

aluminum,

tungsten and

platinum group metals

72

Where do tailings come from?

The waste materials from milling and smelting are called taillings

73

Most ore that is mined is composed mostly of what rock?

Most ore that is mined is composed mostly of waste rock

74

How has technology changed in the mining industry? 4

bigger equipment

able to extract deposits more efficiently

finding new ways to use different minerals

These changes in technology are helping mining companies turn a greater profit.

75

What is Canada’s value of mineral production 2014?

Canada’s value of mineral production was $44.7 billion in 2014.

76

How many major minerals does Canada ranks in the top five countries in the global production of major minerals?

14

77

What are Ocean pumping stations called?

Ocean pumping stations are called ‘Oil Rigs’

78

When should a METHOD of mining be decided?

When metallic or non-metallic ore bodies have been discovered, the METHOD of mining must be decided upon.

79

When would the method of Shaft (Underground) Mining be used? 3

Only used for large (valuable) ore deposits that are located deep within the earth.

Large elevator shafts are constructed to reach the ore body. Explosives are used to loosen the rock and then ring it to the surface.

This method is labor intensive, expensive and dangerous. It doesn’t ‘look’ as unsightly, but still causes substantial environmental damage.

80

How can Energy Minerals like oil and natural gas be located?

Energy Minerals like oil and natural gas can only be located though a drilling process, which is expensive and time consuming.

81

What are ‘Non-flowing’ wells that pumps minerals to the surface called?

These are called ‘Oil Derricks’

82

What are TWO basic methods of extracting energy mineral?

A naturally ‘flowing well’ will use a Christmas tree valve to control the flow.

‘Non-flowing’ wells must have the minerals pumped to the surface.

83

What are the two options to mine metallic or non-metallic ore bodies

Open Pit Mining (strip mining)

Shaft (Underground) Mining

84

When would the method of Open Pit Mining (Strip mining) be used? 3

Used for shallow ore deposits (350m or less)\

The surface rock (overburden) is loosened and then removed to expose the ore. Once the ore is removed, the overburden is used to refill the hole.

This method is relatively easy, safe and cheap, but causes substantial damage to the landscape.

85

What does The term demand refer to?

Demand means the number of people who want that particular thing, or resource.

86

To give an obvious example of how this works, compare gravel to diamonds. Gravel is a fairly common commodity that we see everywhere. It is used in surfacing roads and parking areas. It has some value because it is a product that people have use for; although its
value is low because it is quite
common and easily transported
in bulk form.

Diamonds on the other hand are quite rare in nature and are in high demand for a number of purposes, ranging from the use in drills (diamonds are the hardest known substance), and to use in jewelry, where diamonds of the largest size and quality are highly
prized.

87

Of course, supply and demand not only gives value to objects like gravel and diamonds, it is also used to determine the value of people’s work. In this respect, a brain surgeon’s skill is rarer than those of say a gas pumper; the skills of the best athletes are rare and in high public demand, therefore their salaries correspond with supply and demand.

Of course, supply and demand not only gives value to objects like gravel and diamonds, it is also used to determine the value of people’s work. In this respect, a brain surgeon’s skill is rarer than those of say a gas pumper; the skills of the best athletes are rare and in high public demand, therefore their salaries correspond with supply and demand.

88

What are Non-Renewable resources?

Non-renewable resources are formed over very long periods of time.

Minerals and fossil fuels fall into this category.

Since their rate of formation is extremely slow, they cannot be replenished once they become depleted.

89

Define Alternative Energy Sources. Give 4 examples

Alternative Energy Sources
New and less commonly used sources like wind, solar, biomass, geothermal.

90

What is the Theory of Supply and Demand? 3

The price of an item will go down if the supply increases or if the demand for the item decreases.

The price of an item will go up if the supply decreases or if the demand for the item increases.

In general, the price of an item is usually pushed toward the level at which the quantity supplied will equal the quantity demanded.

91

What does The term supply refers to?

The term supply refers to how much there is of something and how easy it is to get it.

92

Define Conventional Energy Sources and give 5 examples

Conventional Energy Sources
Commonly used or well established sources like natural gas, hydro, oil, coal, nuclear.

93

Where do We get energy from three main sources?

We get energy from three main sources:
Petroleum ( coal & oil based) = 39%

Natural Gas = 35%

Electricity = 24%

Other (ex. wood) = 2%

94

What Many renewable resources can be depleted by human use, but may also be replenished- maintaining a flow? 3



Some of these, like agricultural crops soil, take a short time for renewal;

Others, like water, take a comparatively longer time,

While still others, like forests, take even longer.

95

What two countries use the most energy per capita in the world?

Canada and the USA use the most energy per capita in the world.

96

Why do We use (waste) a lot of energy in Canada? 3

We use a lot of energy in Canada because:

Our cold climate requires lots of heating

We have lots of industry that requires energy

Energy is relatively cheap here, so we waste it!

97

What are some types of renewable resources? 3

sunlight,

air,

wind,

Are continuously available and their quantity is not affected by human consumption (use).

98

What is The energy of moving water is harnessed used to create what? Using Hydro?

The energy of moving water is harnessed to create electricity.

99

Where are Natural resources derived from?

Natural resources are derived from the environment.

100

What are resources called when they can be replenished or reproduced easily?

Renewable resources are ones that can be replenished or reproduced easily.

101

What are Natural resources? 3

Natural resources occur naturally within environments that exist relatively undisturbed by humans, in a natural form.

Many of them are essential for our survival while others are used for satisfying our wants.

Essentially, natural resources are resources that come from nature.

102

What is hydro? And explain the process 4

The energy of moving water is harnessed to create electricity.

Moving water activates turbines and this power is stored in generators.

Large dams are built on rivers for this purpose. A reservoir is created behind the dam ensuring a constant supply of water.

Manitoba Hydro, a Crown Corporation, is central to our economy. We operate a dozen generating stations with more to come.

103

What is the Oil-like substance called that is found around individual sand particles.

bitumen

104

What are the disadvantages of using hydro power? 5

Disadvantages
Can flood areas and alter the natural landscape or water body.

Locations of generating stations far from customers – requires expensive and unsightly transmission lines (ex – Bipole III controversy)

Makes it very hard for fish to migrate upstream

Can kill marshes by bot being able to germinate

Nutrients like Phosphorous aren't flushed out. Trapping them

105

What are the three main conventional fossil fuels?

Natural gas

Coal

oil

106

In North America, where are the major coal reserves?

In North America, there are major coal reserves in:

- The Appalachian Mountains

- Atlantic Canada

- Alberta

107

How is electricity sent to the market?

Provinces and states in North America
have GRIDS that are all connected therefore electricity becomes a commodity that can be exported for profit

108

How do Non-flowing wells operate when extracting petroleum?

Non-flowing wells use electric or gasoline powered pumps to get the oil to the surface (ex. “a grasshopper”)

109

What and how are oil sands extracted from the ground? 3

Oil-like substance called bitumen is found around individual sand particles.

Easily dug out of ground but the process of separating bitumen from sand and then refining the bitumen is expensive

Major environmental concerns were raised for water and wildlife due to this process.

110

How big is LAke Winnipeg in km2

25,000 km2

111

What are the advantages of using hydro power? 3

Advantages
Does not burn fossil fuels and put more carbon in the atmosphere (clean energy).

Creates jobs in northern communities.

Renewable Resource

112

What do marshes do? Why are they known as nature's "kidneys"? 3

Filter out nutrients,

Limit the phosphorous that go to LAke Winnipeg

Break down chemicals from bacteria of dead living materials

113

How are fossil fuels formed? Where are they found?

Fossil fuels are formed when organic material (dead animals and plants) are covered by layers of sand and other sediments.

Compression creates pressure and temperature changes that transform the organic material to rock (coal), liquid (oil) or gas (natural gas).

These fuels are found in a porous rock layer between two layers of impervious rock

114

How do Flowing Wells operate when extracting petroleum?

Flowing Wells use natural pressure and the flow is controlled by a valve system

115

What are the 3 compositions of an oil sand?

Bitumen film

Water layer

Sand layer

116

What is Wind energy? 5

Windmills were the first use of wind for energy

Wind farms are popular in coastal areas, especially in Europe. Manitoba now has many.

Today, there are enough wind farms to power 560,000 homes in Canada.

Large turbines are built – environmental damage reduced to noise pollution and disruption to birds

Farmers building them for extra income

117

How is oil transported?

Oil is transported via tankers or cross country pipelines (above or underground)

118

Where are fossil fuels found underground?

These fuels are found in a porous rock layer between two layers of impervious rock

119

What was ‘old-fashioned’ for many years, but recently the high prices of OIL and NATURAL GAS have caused a resurgence of its popularity.

Coal was ‘old-fashioned’ for many years, but recently the high prices of OIL and NATURAL GAS have caused a resurgence of its popularity.

120

What are the disadvantages of using fossil fuels? 3

Disadvantages
Extracting the fossil fuels can do great damage to the environment (destroy habitat, poison water)

Non-renewable resource

Burning of fossil fuels adds carbon to the atmosphere and increases greenhouse effect.

121

What are the disadvantages of using Wind energy? 2

It takes a significant number of turbines to create the amount of energy produced from a small amount of fossil fuels

noise pollution and disruption to birds

122

What is the scientific term for why Lake Winnipeg is suffering from too much algae?

Nutrification

123

In Lake Winnipeg, what is the percentage of the population of the Blue Green algae in some areas?

90%

124

What is geothermal energy? 2


Exploits natural heat from underground.

Cold water is pumped underground where it is heated. Warm water is then forced back upwards.

125

The Lake Winnipeg watereshed is approxiamately how big in km2?

1,000,000 km2

126

What type of algae is a concern for human because it is lethal to humans?

Blue green algae

127

Besides Nitrogen, what other chemical leads to increased algal growth?

Phosphorous

128

What are the advantages of using Fossil fuels? 2

Advantages
Contributes millions to the economy and creates well paying jobs.

Easy to access (compared to alternative energy) and relatively cheap.

129

Lake Winnipeg is ranked what number as the largest in the world?

10th

130

What is Biomass energy? 2


Using waste products to create energy.

Ex. methane from landfills.

131

The lake is home to what large buildings?

Large hydro dams

132

What is Solar energy? 3

Growing in importance – some families use it to go “off the grid”

Solar panels capture the energy from the sun – are very expensive initially but lead to savings over a long period of time.

Commonly used to power small electrical utilities far away from a conventional source (ex. electric road signs)

133

What stocks did the algae temporarily increased?

Fish stocks

134

Besides Phosphorous, what other chemical leads to increased algal growth?

Nitrogen

135

Is the netley libau marsh considered dead or alive? Why? 3 What does that lead to? 1

dead

There is a lack of waterfowl

50% of the marsh has disappeared

This hampers the ability of the marsh to remove nutrients that increase algal growth.

136

What is a "Prairie Pothole"?

Natural marshes or wetland

137

What is a dead zone? in terms of a lake? 2

Is when a lake's oxygen levels drop to dangerously low levels.

This is because of the decomposition of dead algae which uses up oxygen.

138

What is the culprit to causing the algal blooms?

Phosphorous

139

How is the drainage of prairie potholes in correlation to the nutrient load in Lake Winnipeg? 3

Prairie potholes filter out the nutrients,

limit the phosphorous that go to Lake Winnipeg.

With a lot of them gone, nutrient excess are directly sent to Red river and then to Lake Winnipeg

140

What is one of the causes according to a theory why Lake Winnipeg gets uncontrollable algal growth? 2 How? 2

Because of Hydro dams on the lake.

A lot of people tied the rise of Biomass of algae when the dam was built.

They stabilize water levels

Marshes needs temporary droughts to allow Seeds to germinate

141

Since when have algae growth exploded? What year?

1990

142

What are the sources of the chemical Phosphorous? 5

Fertilizers,

Detergent,

Intensive Pig Farming,

Agriculture,

Sewage.

143

What was the area of the biggest suffering of Lake Winnipeg from too much algae?

25,000

144

What is one of the largest marshes called that is located near Lake Winnipeg?

Netley-Libau marsh

145

What are 5 ways to reduce the amount of nutrients that get to Lake Winnipeg?

Inject manure into soil,

build micro-dams to slow down nutrient run-offs

Recycle phosphorous by harvesting cattails,

Revive Netley-Libau marsh by putting the lake back to natural level of water

Trap some of the runoff by building more sewage lagoons.

146

How many lakes does Canada have?

3 million

147

How many prairie potholes have been drained? 3

70%

6000/80000

millions in the lake winnipeg watershed

148

What are the main concerns regarding oil sands? 4

They pollute the water -- indigenous communities are suffering high rates of cancer

Environmental impacts

Creates emissions

Non-Renewable resource

149

What could be done to save Lake Winnipeg?

Turn off the dam every 5-7 years to allow seed to germinate

150

What are Reactive methods to clean up water supply once it has been polluted? 3

Volunteer hours to people cleaning the river

Conversion -- use chemical reactions to turn contaminants to become less toxic

Research into ways to convert it

151

Why should we save Lake Winnipeg? 5

It is important part of Canada's environment,

economy,

history,

indigenous people,

If Lake Winnipeg dies, it can snowball to an even bigger problem

152

What are Pro-Active methods that could be employed to prevent pollution? 4

Banned certain products that uses a lot of phosphorous and nitrogen -- Use soap without phosphorous

Develop rules and regulations

Educate more people

Develop sewage systems that are more green -- emits less carbon so it doesn't contribute as much to the pollution

153

Why is Canada importing oil from other countries, mainly in the east despite the fact that we have vast reserves of oil in the oil sands?

Because there has been little infrastructure connecting Western Canadian oil supplies to eastern Canadian markets.

154

What are the three types of water pollution? describe each type

Physical,--garbage

Chemical,--animal pests, weeds, diseases, pesticides and herbicides

Biological--bacteria nd virus

155

Describe two ways contaminants in our water can enter our bodies.

By drinking it and exposure--inhalation

156

What area was once known as a "chemical soup" and why?

The Great Lakes because a lot of toxic chemicals were dumped in the laked.

157

Why are wetlands disappearing? Why is this important to the health of our fresh water sources? 3

Drained for agriculture and housing

They act as storage areas for floodwater,

Filters out pollutants

158

Why has the USA put pressure on Canada to sell our freshwater? 2

They have water shortages -- critical

They have few drainage basins with water surplus

159

What are FOR arguments to sell our fresh water? 4

It's a renewable source

Can create jobs

There is a regulation

It will improve our international relationship

160

What are AGAINST arguments to sell our fresh water? 4

Potential environmental damage

Negative impact on Aboriginal People -- they are the first affected by change

Loss of Canadian control over some of its resources if American companies start staying here

high cost

161

Why do we consume/waste a lot of water for a country with a fairly small population against like india? 3

We have an abundance of water supply

No strict regulations about water usage

Water is basically free (parks, school water fountains)

162

What are two forms of frozen water?

Ice

Snow

163

What are the two methods to mining oil sands? Explain them

Surface mining---levelling the forest, draing the soil and scooping out the oil sands

Drilling wells --- injecting steam to melt the oil underground so it can be pumped to the surface

164

What are some ways minerals are used for? 5

Pencils are made using graphite as the so-called pencil lead

Glass and pottery are made of quartz, clay, limestone and gypsum

Highways are made of asphalt (petroleum product), basalt, limestone and other rocks

All metal products (including cars and trucks) are made from metallic minerals

Food is grown with mineral based fertilizers such as limestone, gypsum and potash

165

What is biofuel? 2

IS made from organic material and was made to replace fossil fuels.

Three main types of Biofuel are Ethanol, Biodiesel and Biojet

166

What is Hydropower?

Is the electricity or power that is generated from the energy of moving water

167

What is Wind energy? 2

Is power derived from wind: uses to generate electricity or mechanical power

wind blades specifically designed to turn Spins which turns a shaft connected to a generator that produces electricity

168

What is Solar energy? 2

Uses solar radiation to produce energy

Solar panels convert the sun's light and heat into electricity and thermal energy

169

What is Electric Cars? 2

A vehicle that runs exclusively on an electric motor instead of a gasoline engine

Powered by an electric motor that's charged by energy in rechargeable batteries

170

What is Biomass?

Is a biological material retrieved from organisms that have been living or at least recently living.

171

What is Geothermal energy? 3

Geothermal energy is energy produced by the heat from the earth's core.

Energy is extracted by geothermal plants.


Water is injected in deep wells, which are heated by earth's core.

172

What is Tidal/Wave energy? 3

Special buoys, turbines, and other technologies can capture the power of waves and tides and convert it into clean, pollution-free electricity.

Like other renewable resources, both wave and tidal energy are variable in nature.

Waves are produced by winds blowing across the surface of the ocean.