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1

basic structural unit of life; all have same basic architecture;
water based interior that is separated from a chemically distinct water based exterior by a cell membrane;

cells

2

water molecules clinging together; hydrogen bonding allows water molecules to stick to one another and surfaces making them wet

cohesion

3

water molecules cling to surfaces

adhesion

4

universale solvent

a substance in which other substances can dissolve

5

stacked membranous discs; packages and transports proteins

golgi apparatus

6

encloses the cell's DNA; reaction for interpreting the genetic instructions takes place here; surrounded by the nuclear envelope;
Defining organelle for eukaryotic cells

Nucleus

7

cells powerhouse;
extract energy from food;
convert energy into a useful form;
found in almost all eukaryotic cells

mitochondria

8

network of membrane covered in pipes;
proteins and lipids synthesized here;
Rough ER and Smooth ER;
"plumbing system"
critical for the production of proteins

Endoplasmic reticulum

9

Full of digestive enzymes;
Break down worn out parts or molecules;
"recycle"

Lysosomes

10

hypothesis can be_______ and _______

tested and proven false

11

network of protein fibers;
variety of functions including cell support, cell movement, and movement of structures within cells

cytoskeleton

12

plant and algae cells;
two membranes;
internal system of stacked membrane disc

chloroplast

13

free living prokaryotic cells engulfed other free living prokaryotic cells billions of years ago forming eukaryotic organelles

Endosymbiosis theory

14

nucleotides are composed of what?

sugar, phosphate group, and a base

15

formed between two amino acids

peptide bond

16

all living things are made up of cells;
every new cell comes from the division of a pre-existing cell

cell theory

17

carbohydrates

energy storage

18

proteins

speed up chemical reactions

19

Lipids

insulation

20

nucleic acids

genetic info

21

5 functions of life

1. grows
2. reproduces
3. ability to obtain and use energy
4. homeostasis
5. senses and responds to stimuli

22

comes from sunlight or food;
organisms use this to break down food

energy

23

sum total of all chemical reactions occurring in living things

metabolism

24

Anything that takes up space and has mass

matter

25

substances that can't be chemically broken down; these are not alive, but sometimes combining them makes life

elements

26

smallest unit of an element that still retains the property of that element; have distinct chemical properties

Atom

27

dense core of an atom

nucleus

28

protons are _______

positive

29

electrons are ______

negative

30

Neutrons are ______

Neutral