Test One Flashcards Preview

Neuroscience > Test One > Flashcards

Flashcards in Test One Deck (86):
1

Medial

Toward the midline

2

Lateral

Away from midline

3

Proximal

nearest from the point of origin

4

Distal

Farthest from the point of origin

5

Ipsilateral

same side of the body

6

Contralateral

Opposite side of the body

7

Superior

Above another part

8

Inferior

Below another part

9

Ventral

Toward the front (spinal cord, brain)

10

Dorsal

Toward the back (spinal cord, brain)

11

Anterior

Toward the front

12

Posterior

Toward the back

13

Rostral

Toward the head

14

Caudal

Toward the back

15

Somatic

Relating to the body

16

Visceral

Relating to organs

17

Afferent

Sensory; going IN towards nervous system

18

Efferent

Motor; EXITING away from nervous system

19

Lesion

an area of damage or dysfunction

20

Focal Lesion

localized

21

Multifocal lesion

several nonsymetric localized location

22

Diffuse lesion

bilateral and symmetrical locations (but in separate hemispheres)

23

Coronal plane (frontal)

divides into anterior and posterior sections (when brain is cut in coronal section, can see ventricles)

24

Sagittal

divides into right and left portions

25

Transverse (horizontal)

cuts at right angle to the long axis of the structure (most typical image of spinal cord)

26

Organizational principles

Structural + Functional principles

27

Structural Principles

-Topographic Organization
- Somatotopic Organization
- Phylogenetic Layers
- Convergence & Divergence
-Vertical vs. Horizontal Systems

28

Topographic Organization

Structural Principle: Neurons responsible for the same function are all located closely together; i.e. motor neurons are all located in the ventral horn

29

Somatotopic Organization

Structural Principle: Visual representation of the body on the brain = Homunculus = different body parts have different amounts and places dedicated on CORTEX of brain.

30

Phylogenentic Layers

Structural Principle:
Oldest structures (life sustaining) are located deep within the core, while newer structures (most differentiated) are located toward the surface.

Example: MacLean's Triune Brain Model: the human brain is actually three brains in one; the extra brain is what makes us human.

Reptilian Brain (4f': feednig, fleeing, fighting, sex)
Paleomammalian: + limbic system
Neomammalian: language, executive function, planning for future

31

Convergence

Structural Principle:
Process by which multiple inputs from a variety of cells terminate on a single neurons (Many --> One)

32

Divergence

Structural Principle:
Process by which a single neuronal axon has branches that terminate on many cells (One --> Many). Advantageous because if one side is damaged, neuron cans still communicate to other cells

33

Vertical (longitudinal) systems

Structural Principle:
- Motor and sensory information; brain : spinal cord
- Generally crossed to that the right hemisphere "controls" the left side of the body (contralateral side)
- Places of decussation = where crossing happens
- Ascending tracts = sensory affarent
- Descending tracts = motor efferent

34

Horizontal (segmental) systems

Structural Principle:
- From spinal cord, signal goes out.
- Includes the spinal and peripheral nerves
- Uncrossed (ipsilateral side)
- "control" restricted areas of the body
i.e. C6 controls wrist extensions; C5 controls elbow flexion

35

Functional Principles

- Purposiveness
- Distributed control
- Redundent representatios
- Feedback
- Adaptation

36

Purposiveness

Functional Principle:
The nervous system is goal directed; gets rid of connections we don't need for sake of efficiency

37

Distributed control

Functional Principle:
There are multiple centers of control, not hierarchical.

38

Redundant representations

Functional Principle:
The brain likes redundancy = gets same information through different ways

39

Feedback

Functional Principle:
that brain likes to stay informed

40

Adaptation:

Functional Principle:
Plasticity of the NS; if there's an injury another area can take over; different areas can grow more when used more often

41

Function of the Nervous System

To control behavior (therefore essential to occupation)
Sense -> Transmit -> Perceive -> Act

42

Neurons

- the basic functional unit of the NS (there are billions)
- consist of cell body (soma) and the processes that extend out from cell body (axon and dendrites)
- three types: afferent (sensory info IN); efferent (motor info EXIT); interneurons (connect sensory to motor)

43

Glial Cells

- non-neural
- provide services for the neuron: nourish, support, and protect neurons
- specialized glial cells from myelin sheaths

44

Gray matter

- Houses cell bodies
- Integrates information
- CNS: nuclei (cortex in brain; horn in spinal cord)
- PNS : ganglia = EXCEPT basal ganglia gray matter in the brain (CNS)

45

White Matter

- fibers (axons) and myelin - extend from neuron
- conveys information
- CNS: tract, fasiculus, column, peduncle, lemniscus, capsule
- PNS: nerve
- white because has high fat content

46

Divisions of the Nervous System

CNS: brain + spinal cord
PNS: cranial nerves + spinal nerves

47

Length of Spinal Cord

Stops at L1

48

Conus medullaris

The part where the spinal cord tapers off

49

Cauda equina

Horse's tail: nerves at the bottoms that spread out t lower lumbar and sacral levels

50

Ventral & dorsal root

Attaches spinal nerve to spinal cord

51

Where are sensory cell bodies located

dorsal root ganglion

52

Where are motor cell bodies located

inside ventral horn of spinal cord

53

Function of Spinal Cord

1) conduit for flow of info to and from brain
2) processing of information that needs to keep you safe (certain reflexes)
3) visceral functions - communication w/ internal organs
4) control of limb and trunk muscles
- cervical = UP, neck, diaphragm
- thoracic = trunk
- lumber = LE
- sacral = bladder, bowel, and sexual functions

54

Brainstem

3 areas: medulla, pons, midbrain
1) connects spinal cord and cerebrum
2) integrates information
3) regulates vital functions

55

Medulla

- most caudal end of brainstem
- life support centers (heart control, vasoconstriction)

56

Pons

- rostral to medulla of brainstem
- regulates respirations

57

Midbrain

- most rostral section of the brainstem
- visual and auditory reflexes

58

Cerebellum

- 2 of them, 1 on each hemisphere
- connects to posterior brainstem by peduncles (white matter = axons)
Purpose:
1) coordinates movement
2) controls range and force of movement
3) motor learning/memory
4) balance
-

59

Parts of the Diencephalon

1) Thalamus
2) Hypothalamus
3) Epithalamus
4) Subthalamus

60

Thalamus

- part of diencephelon
- bilateral, egg shaped, center of cerebrum
- relays almost all info to cerebral cortes
- integrates different types of senstation
- process emotional info
- involved in memory
- regulates consciousness, arousal, attention

61

Hypothalamus

- part of diencephalon
- below thalamus
- primary functions = homeostasis (temp, heart rate, BP)
- regulations of visceral and endocrine functions
- eating, defense, & reproductive behaviors
- expression of emotion
- regulation of circadian rhythms
- endocrine regulations of growth, metabolism, etc

62

Telencephalon

Cerebral hemisperes (2)
- covered by cortex = gray matter
- deep to cortex -> white matter = axons connecting cortex w/ CNS

63

Commisures

structures conveying information b/w left and right hemispheres

64

Corpus callosum

- a type of commissure
- connects L to R hemispheres

65

Anterior commissure

- connects temporal lobe to cortex

66

Internal capsule

White matter, consisting of axons projectins from cortez to and from subcortical structures
(analogy: your hand holding flower stems together)

67

Sulci, Gyri, and Fissures

- increase surface area of brain
- seperates the cerebral cortex into lobes and hemispheres

68

Gyri

elevates ridges

69

Sulci (central sulcus)

Folds, valleys
- central sulcus = separates frontal and parietal lobes

70

Fissures (medial longitudinal fissure, lateral fissure)

Folds, valleys
- medial longitudinal fissure = seperate L & R hemisphere
- lateral fissure = separates temporal lobe and frontal lobe

71

Frontal Lobe

- everything anterior to central sulcus
1) control of movement
2) personality
3) executive functions (planning, judgement, reasoning, etc)

72

Pareital Lobe

- behind central sulcus
1) sensory perception
2) body image/ schema
3) spatial awareness

73

Temporal Lobe

- inferior to lateral fissure
1) hearing
2) speech comprehension
3) aspects of learning

74

Occipital lobe

- most posterior/caudal
1) vision

75

Basal Ganglia

- part of telencephalon
- nuclei (GRAY matter) located deep within cerebral hemispheres
1) initiation of control of movement
2) cognitive functions (working memory, sustaining attention)

76

Limbic System

- part of telencephalon
- Hippocampus (sea horse) + Amygdala (almond)
1) Memory
2) Learning
3) Emotion
4) Motivation

77

Support Systems of the Nervous System (neurons and glial cells)

1) Vascular System
2) CSF System

78

Cerebrospinal Fluid System

- Acts as shock absorber
Contains:
1) CSF
2) Ventricles (4) = CSF filled spaces inside the brain
3) Meninges = membranous coverings of the brain and spinal cord (protective and circulatory functions)

79

Dura Mater

"tough mother"
- outer layer
- firmly bound to skull
- separates parts of the brain

80

Falx Cerebri

- part of dura mater
- groove in b/w L & R brain (medial longitudinal fissure)

81

Tentorium cerebelli

- part of dura mater
- separates cerebellar hemispheres

82

Arachnoid Mater

- middle layer, delicates
- loosely attached to the dura mater
- subarachnoid space below, filled with collages fibers

83

Pia Mater

"tender mother"
- inner most layer, very delicates
- tightly attached to the surfaces of the brain & the SC

84

Parts of the PNS

1) Somatic NS
2) Visceral/ Autonomic NS

85

Somatic NS

- interacts with the external environment
- sensory in, motor out -> through nerves of SNS
- spinal nerves (31 pairs)
- cranial nerves (12 pairs)

86

Visceral/Autonomic NS

- regulates internal environment
2 parts
1) Sympathetic (increases activity)
2) Parasympathetic (decreases activity)
**Except digestion = reversed**