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Flashcards in Test One Deck (37):
1

Define "Management.

Management is the attainment of organizational goals in an effective and efficient manner through planning, organizing, leading, and controlling.

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2. List and describe the four basic functions of management:

a. Planning(setting goals), organizing(responsibility for task accomplishment), leading (influence to motivate employees), and controlling (monitoring activities and making necessary changes)

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3. What is an "Organization?"

a. Social entity (more than one person) that is goal directed and deliberately structured.

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4. Explain the difference between Efficiency and Effectiveness.

a. Efficiency Refers to the amount of resources used to achieve an organizational goal
b. Effectiveness refers to Providing a product or service that customers value.

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5. Describe Conceptual, Human, and Technical skills.

a. conceptual (understanding the big picture), human (interaction), technical (understanding how things work).

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6. What does it mean to say that managers have Interpersonal, Informational, and Decisional Roles?

a. Interpersonal refers to working well with others, informational refers to a high knowledge in the area, and decisional role refers to their ability to make effective decisions.

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8. Describe the Classical Perspective on management

Emerged during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Rise of the factory system (industrial revolution), Issues regarding structure, training, and employee satisfaction, Large, complex organizations required new approaches to coordination and control

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Scientific Management

Improve efficiency and labor productivity through scientific methods, Frederick Winslow Taylor proposed that workers "could be retooled like machines", Management decisions would be based on studies, The Gilbreths pioneered time and motion studies to promote efficiency

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Bureaucratic organizations:

Max Weber, a German theorist, introduced the concepts, Manage organizations on impersonal, rational basis , Organization depends on rules and records, Use power instead of personality to delegate tasks

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Administrative Principles:

Focused on the entire organization, 14 general principles of management; many still used today: Unity of command, Division of work, Unity of direction, Scalar chain

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Administrative Principles:

Focused on the entire organization, 14 general principles of management; many still used today: Unity of command, Division of work, Unity of direction, Scalar chain

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10. Why did the Hawthorne Studies lessen the influence of the Classical Perspective?

a. Human relations was a key factor, it was found that if the boss treated the employees better, their output increased.

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12. Distinguish between Theory X and Theory Y.

a. Theory X assumes people generally dislike work and will do anything to avoid it.
b. Theory Y assumes that the average person is impartial to work, goes through the motions.

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13. Describe the modern field of Management Science.

a. Emphasizes quantum analytics along with the use of information systems/technology in decision making.

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13. Describe the modern field of Management Science.

a. Emphasizes quantum analytics along with the use of information systems/technology in decision making.

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14. Describe Systems Thinking, the Contingency View, and Total Quality Management.

a. System Thinking: ability to see the distinct elements of a situation as well as their complexities.
b. Contingency View: every situation is unique its up to managers to adapt to changing situations.
c. Quality management: associated with Japan, established strong values in everything they do.

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14. Describe Systems Thinking, the Contingency View, and Total Quality Management.

a. System Thinking: ability to see the distinct elements of a situation as well as their complexities.
b. Contingency View: every situation is unique its up to managers to adapt to changing situations.
c. Quality management: associated with Japan, established strong values in everything they do.

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1. Distinguish between General, Task, and Internal Environments. Be able to recognize examples of each.

a. The internal organizational environment includes all inside elements that affect the organization, Task environment: Sectors that conduct transactions with the organization, General environment: Affects organizations indirectly

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2. Describe the two categories of factors in an organization's environment that combine to determine the degree of "uncertainty" of the environment.

a. Organizational and environmental

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3. Describe some ways that organizations deal with uncertain environments.

a. Understanding and adapting to the changes

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4. What is a "Corporate Culture?"
.

a. Corporate culture is the set of key values, beliefs, understandings, and norms that members of an organization share

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5. Describe the significance of organizational symbols, stories, heroes, slogans, and ceremonies with respect to corporate culture.

a. It establishes what your company stands for and depicts a company's values.

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Adaptability, Achievement, Involvement, Consistency.

a. Adaptability: external and flexible
b. Achievement: external and stable
c. Involvement: internal and flexible
d. Consistency: internal and stable

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7. What is a "High-Performance Culture"?

a. Based on solid values/mission and its these values which are the guides in decision making

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8. What are the general techniques of Cultural Leadership?

a. Using symbols and signals to guide corporate culture

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1. Describe Globalization.

a. Appreciating other cultures and being globally aware

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2. Describe Multinational Corporations.

a. Corporation who has ties in multiple countries

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3. Explain why International Management is more complex than the management of a domestic business.

a. Different cultures need to be taken into consideration.

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4. What is "Ethnocentrism?"

a. evaluation of other cultures according to preconceptions originating in the standards and customs of one's own culture.

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Distinguish between "High-context" and "Low-context" cultures.

a. high: less explicit verbal information also less written rules/communication. Low is expected to follow tight rules and communication patterns.
.

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7. What is the World Trade Organization (WTO) and what does it do?

a. Maturation of GATT into permanent global institute, establishes trade regulations

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9. How are new trading alliances such as the European Union and NAFTA changing international trade? What are the pros and cons of these alliances?

a. Establishing new regulations and bills which impact how we trade, both agency's have pros and cons in various cultures depending on countries former policies/tariffs

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1. Define "Ethics" and explain how ethical behavior relates to behavior governed by law and by free choice.

a. Code of morals which establishes right from wrong.

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2. Explain the Utilitarian, Individualism, Moral-Rights, Justice, and Practical approaches for evaluating ethical behavior.

a. Utilitarian: moral behavior produces the greatest good for the greatest number
b. Individualism: acts are moral if they promote the individual's long-term interest
c. Moral-rights: humans have fundamental rights and liberties that cannot be taken away by an individual's decision
d. Justice: moral decisions must be based on standards of equity, fairness, and impartiality
e. Practical Approach: bases decisions on prevailing standards, society, and all stakeholders

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4. Define "Social Responsibility."

a. Distinguishes between a company doing right from wrong and contributing to society.

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5. What is a "Stakeholder?"

a. any group within or outside the organization that has some type of investment or interest in the organization's performance and is affected by the organizations actions.

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5. What is meant by "Sustainability" and the "Triple Bottom Line?"

a. Sustainability: economic development that generates wealth and meets the needs of current generation while preserving the environment for the needs of future generations
b. Triple Bottom Lin