Test Revision 26/04/2018 Flashcards Preview

Biology > Test Revision 26/04/2018 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Test Revision 26/04/2018 Deck (51):
1

What are the four types of teeth?

Incisor, canine, pre-molar & molar.

2

What are the three types of mammals?

Omnivores, herbivores and carnivores

3

What is a stomach?

A muscular bag, filled with digestive juices.

4

What is the purpose of the hydrochloric acid in the stomach?

The hydrochloric acid creates the perfect condition for the enzyme protease.

5

Why is the stomach lining covered in mucus?

To prevent the hydrochloric acid from burning through the stomach lining.

6

How is the small intestine adapted to absorb more?

It is long, the inner lining is folded and it is covered in villi, therefore the surface area is increased.

7

What happens in the large intestine during the digestion process?

The blood reabsorbs the extra water mixed with the waste food.

8

What are the names of the hearts chambers?

The left and right atrium and the left and right ventricle.

9

What are the 6 ways diseases can spread?

Through: -The air
-Water
-Food
-Touch
-Animals
-Sexual contact

10

What does a vaccination do?

Exposes the body to live, dead or weakened pathogens to stimulate the white blood cells to make antibodies.

11

What is fertilisation?

Fertilisation is the fusion of the male and female gametes’ nucleus in the oviduct.

12

What is digestion?

The process of breaking large insoluble molecules into small soluble molecules for the body to absorb.

13

What are the two ways food is broken down and an example?

Physically - cutting the food and biting into it
Chemically - by enzymes breaking down the chemical bond.

14

What is the function of the stomach?

Churns food to mix it with digestive juices.

15

What is the function of the liver?

Produces bile.

16

What is the function of the gall bladder?

Stores bile.

17

What is the function of the pancreas?

Produces digestive enzymes which are released in the small intestine.

18

What is the function of the appendix?

Thought to store memory of gut bacteria.

19

Why is the left side of the heart bigger than the right?

The right hand side only has to pump blood to the lungs whereas the left hand side has to pump blood all around the body.

20

Which always pump blood out of the heart? The ventricles or the atriums?

The ventricles.

21

What is the function of the valves?

Valves prevent the back flow of blood.

22

What is the hearts blood supply called?

The coronary artery.

23

What happens if the coronary artery becomes blocked?

The organism could have a heart attack.

24

Describe arteries, veins and capillaries.

Arteries: thick muscular walls to withstand high pressure
Veins: thin walls but a wide cavity for blood to flow with low pressure, they have valves to prevent the back flow of blood
Capillaries: one cell thick to allow fast exchange of materials

25

How does air travel in the lungs?

Air is breathed in -> trachea (windpipe) -> bronchi -> bronchioles-> aveoli -> gas exchange takes place in the aveoli

26

What happens to you body when you exercise?

Fermentation takes place and lactic acid builds up in your muscles which causes pain.

27

Name at lease one example for each of the three lines of defences.

1st - skin, hair, mucus or tears
2nd - scabs
3rd- white blood cells

28

Name the structure involved in reproduction in plants.

Stigma, style, ovary, ovules, anther, filament, petal, sepal, stem, nectary.

29

Name the different ways of seed dispersal.

Animal external
Animal internal
Explosive/self-propelled
Water
Wind

30

How are seeds adapted to disperse?

Animal external: sticky or have hooks
Animal internal: surrounded by juicy fruit
Explosive/self-propelled: grow seed pods
Water: waterproof and float
Wind: small, light and have wings or parachutes

31

How does asexual reproduction take place?

They make identical clones of themselves.

32

What are the two ways asexual reproduction happens in?

Make miniature versions of themselves on slender horizontal stems called runners.

Underground food stores called tubers use food for cell division.

33

One advantage and disadvantage for sexual reproduction

Adapt to a new environment -> takes time and energy

34

One advantage and disadvantage for asexual reproduction

Doesn’t have to wait for a mate -> disease may affect all individuals

35

What is biodiversity?

The total variation of living things

36

Give two reasons why Scotland’s biodiversity is distinct

There are clean seas and semi-natural vegetation

37

What causes floods? And what is a disadvantage?

Cause by heavy rainfall and waters don’t have the capacity to hold water so they overflow.

Chemicals and other substances can end up in the water contaminating it.

38

What causes forest fires? And what is a disadvantage?

Caused by high temperatures in time of drought and lightning strikes.

Disrupt the food web of the forest.

39

What causes earthquakes? And what is a disadvantage?

Cause by the movement of the Earth’s plates.

Gas pipes can explode leading to fires.

40

What causes tsunamis? And what is a disadvantage?

Cause by a disturbance above or below water.

Organisms which belong in water would be washed up on shores and die.

41

What is a community?

All the living organisms in an ecosystem.

42

What is a habitat?

Where an organism lives.

43

What is an ecosystem?

A community and all the non-living components.

44

What is a population?

A group of organisms of the same species.

45

Name 3 sampling techniques

Quadrat, pond net and pit fall traps.

46

Name three biotic factors

Disease, food availability and number of predators

47

Name three abiotic factors

Light intensity, pH of soil and temperature

48

What are producers (food chain)

All green plants re producers because they use the sunlight to produce their own energy

49

What is a primary consumer?

An herbivore that gets its energy from a producer

50

What is a secondary consumer?

An organism that obtains its energy from another organism that is not a producer

51

What do the arrows in a food chain show?

The direction of energy flow