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Flashcards in Test Soc Deck (29):
1

Class consciousness

Awareness by members of social class that it is being oppressed and that membership in class dooms everyone to same fate

2

Class system

System in which Social standing is determined by factors over which people can exert some control, such as educational attainment, income, she work experience

3

Culture of poverty

Set of norms and values that helps the poor to adapt to their situation

4

False consciousness

Class‘s acceptance of an ideology that is contrary to best interests of class

5

Ideology

Pattern of beliefs that legitimizes or justifies a particular societal arrangement

6

Prestige

Honor associated with an occupation or other position in a social system

7

Socioeconomic status

Person’s ranking along several social dimensions, particularly education, occupational prestige, and income

8

Social stratification

Arrangement of society into a series of layers, strata, on the basis of an unequal distribution of societal resources, prestige, or power

9

Intergenerational mobility

Upward and downward mobility in socioeconomic status measured by standing of children compared with that of parents

10

Structural mobility

Movement of entire categories of people caused by changes in society itself

11

Race

Group of people who have been singled out on the basis of real or alleged physical characteristics

12

Ethnicity

Common cultural characteristics people share (language, food, place if origin, values)

13

Minority

Group that has less power than the dominant group

14

Prejudge

Attitude that predisposes an individual to prejudge entire categories of people unfairly

15

Discrimination

Unfair and harmful treatment of people based on their group membership

16

Institutional racism

situation in which racist practices become part of societal practice and institutions of society

17

Assimilation

Blending of culture and structure of one racial or ethnic group with culture and structure of society

18

Americanization

Process within American society in which minority group members change their behavior and in doing so become more like to majority group

19

Pluralism

Situation in which separate racial and ethnic groups maintain their distinctiveness even though they may have approximately equal standing

20

Expulsion

Forceful exclusion of racial or ethnic group from society

21

Annihilation

Process by which one ethnic or racial group exterminated another group

22

Principle of cumulation

Process in which discrimination by minority keeps the minority in an inferior status and the inferior status then cited as “proof” that minority does not deserve better treatment

23

Ethnic identity

Internalization of ethnic roles as part of a person’s self-concept

24

Gender

Cultural and attitudinal qualities associated with being male or female

25

Gender markers

Symbols and signs identifying a person’s gender

26

Sexual harassment

Unwanted attention or pressure of a sexual nature from another person of greater social or physical power

27

Gender equality

Between men and women under the law

28

Glass ceiling

Subtle and often unconscious discrimination within organizations that prevent women from reaching higher and better paying positions for which they are qualified

29

Second shift

Housework such as cooking, cleaning and child care that women who work outside the home take in when they arrive home