Test Two ~ Ch. 6-10 Flashcards Preview

AP World History > Test Two ~ Ch. 6-10 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Test Two ~ Ch. 6-10 Deck (54):
0

Meaning/background of Islam

Islam = submission. to Allah submit to his will. One who has submitted- Mulish. Middle East, Arabia - Bedouins Muhammad. Judaism, Christianity, and Islam all came from same place

1

Bedouin culture

on Arabia peninsula. nomadic - clan based groups

2

Bedouin inter-clan rivalry

fight over resources- water, herding land

3

Ka'ba

Pre-Islamic religion. animistic and polytheistic. Site of an annual truce

4

Muhammad's revelation

610 Gabriel sows up to bring message to muhammad about religion for bedouins peoples. Written in the quarn

5

Ummayyads response to Islam

In charge of Mecca. felt threaten about new religion. kick muhammad out- moved to Midena - Hijrah

6

Islam in relation to other monotheistic religions

Islam pulls characters and ideas from Judaism and Christianity, allowing it to be easier to convert

7

Five pillars

The duties of followers of Islam. Confession of faith, prayer, fasting during Ramadan, zakat, and hajj

8

Result of Muhammad's death

Caliph- rightly guided, deputy caring out the will of Muhammad, relatives. Last one- Ali - son-in-law got murdered

9

Umayyad Capitol

Demascus- change in the way things are going to be done. Caliph's no longer second in command. Now first- emperors with luxury. Mecca religious capital.

10

Malawi

Non-Arab converts to Islam. Second class. slightly more taxes than the first class.

11

Classes in Early Islam

1. Arab born in religion
2. Mawali
3. dhimmi

12

Umayyad attitude toward other religion

Accepted them, but now in not in the same class and social status. Now they have stricter tax code.

13

Abbasid capital

Baghadd

14

Caliph al-Mhadi's succession problem

He did not provide a clear sucessor.

15

The Thousands and One Nights

the luxury & intrigue of Harun's court have been immortalized into tales

16

al-Rashid's precedent for Persian advisors

He became heavily dependent on a family of Persian advisors & set the trend

17

Personal armies in Abasid rule

the real power behind the throne. won you the right to rule

18

Abbasid attitude toward salvery

unskilled labor. served caliphs. possible to become free/powerful

19

Slejuk Turks

Nomadic invaders from Asia. Grew in power & influnce. attacked Baghadd in 1055

20

First Crusade

Capture of Jeruslem. Europe won because of surprise attack. They lose control less than 100 years later.

21

Saladin

Muslim general that recaptures the land that was lost in the first Crusade.

22

Impact of Crusades on the Europe

A LOT of cultural contact. Resurgence of learning new knowledge. Since they didn't have a lot of old history because it is in the Middle East- find it. Started the Renaissance.

23

Impact of Crusades on Islam

Had little impact. they were already advanced in knowledge and culture.

24

Language adopted by Abbasid court

Persian. almost replaces Arabic- religious language.

25

Stateless societies

In Africa. lacked political concentration. organized around kinship with a group of elders.

26

First African region converted to Islam by 700 AD

North Africa- has contact with religion.

27

Almoravids/Almohadis

Two Islamic reform movements in Northern Africa. Burgur- first to convert and spread it south

28

Ethiopia

Only christian country - axum

29

Sahel

grasslands south of Sahara. Sahel means coastline of desert

30

Sundiata

"The Lion Prince" founded the Mali empire - the Malinke

31

Griots

"keepers of tradition". traditional record keepers- storytellers. become key advisors to Mali kings.

32

Muslim slave trade in Africa

they looked for household jobs, beauty, intellegence to bring back to Abbasid empire. New point of contact- converted to culture and Islam

33

Institution of slavery in Muslim society

adopted Islam and culture

34

Culture of East African trade ports

Trade in Indian Ocean by Arab coast of Africa. Transmitting language and religion. Bantu people speak Swahili- combo of Bantu language and Arab merchants

35

Byzantine Empire

Eastern half of Rome. Eastern Orthodox Christian. Linked more to the Silk Road, traded luxury.

36

Russia's Relationship to Byzantines

Byzantine spread their religion through trade. Blamer- prince of Kevia choose byzantine religion. Culture and language makes connection. "Third Rome" to continue the legacy of Rome

37

Constaninople

Capital of Byzantine empire. established by Constantine

38

Hagia Sophia

Church in Constanople- largest church in the Christain world with the largest dome in the world

39

Official language of Byzantine Empire

Greek. Eastern half- Greek was common so it became the official.

40

Justinian's camaign to reunite Rome

wanted to reunite Rome to its formal glory. not successful :(

41

Basil II

Byzatine emperor- waged a lot of war against Bulger. "Hammer of the Bulgers"(him) bet them.

42

Greek Fire

Byzantine weapon- mixtures of chemicals that ignite in water. Used against Ottoman Empire.

43

Hellenism in Byzantine culture

Greek culture & artistic trend cause of Alexander the Great

44

Meaning of the Middle Ages

time between the Fall of Rome and the Reniancance

45

Vikings

Scandinavian raiders. Fuatalism emerges- political & social order

46

Manorialism

agreement with peasents and landlords- tied to the land for protection

47

Serfs

farmers who lived on landlord's land & in return gave some of the crop to him

48

Moldboard

plow that allowed to cultivate deeper into the ground- easier for peasants

49

Clovis

Early Frank king accepted Christianity to gain more power against the pagan regional rulers. starts wave of Christianity

50

Benedict of Nursia

writer of "The Rule" - rules of the monk life

51

Carolingian Dynasty

The Franks royal family that took over France in the 8 century. Charles Martel fought back against Muslim advance.
Charles the great first Holy Roman Empire- largest empire since Rome

52

Feudalism and vassals

F: Linked military elites (vassals), mostly landlords, who could not afford the horses and iron. V: lesser lords that require protection from the F. Lords-vassals(used to be knights)-serfs

53

Fourth Crusade

lead by merchants in Venice attacked Constantinople- economic. Leads to the end of them