Flashcards in Test Two ~ Ch. 6-10 Deck (54):
Meaning/background of Islam
Islam = submission. to Allah submit to his will. One who has submitted- Mulish. Middle East, Arabia - Bedouins Muhammad. Judaism, Christianity, and Islam all came from same place
on Arabia peninsula. nomadic - clan based groups
Bedouin inter-clan rivalry
fight over resources- water, herding land
Pre-Islamic religion. animistic and polytheistic. Site of an annual truce
610 Gabriel sows up to bring message to muhammad about religion for bedouins peoples. Written in the quarn
Ummayyads response to Islam
In charge of Mecca. felt threaten about new religion. kick muhammad out- moved to Midena - Hijrah
Islam in relation to other monotheistic religions
Islam pulls characters and ideas from Judaism and Christianity, allowing it to be easier to convert
The duties of followers of Islam. Confession of faith, prayer, fasting during Ramadan, zakat, and hajj
Result of Muhammad's death
Caliph- rightly guided, deputy caring out the will of Muhammad, relatives. Last one- Ali - son-in-law got murdered
Demascus- change in the way things are going to be done. Caliph's no longer second in command. Now first- emperors with luxury. Mecca religious capital.
Non-Arab converts to Islam. Second class. slightly more taxes than the first class.
Classes in Early Islam
1. Arab born in religion
Umayyad attitude toward other religion
Accepted them, but now in not in the same class and social status. Now they have stricter tax code.
Caliph al-Mhadi's succession problem
He did not provide a clear sucessor.
The Thousands and One Nights
the luxury & intrigue of Harun's court have been immortalized into tales
al-Rashid's precedent for Persian advisors
He became heavily dependent on a family of Persian advisors & set the trend
Personal armies in Abasid rule
the real power behind the throne. won you the right to rule
Abbasid attitude toward salvery
unskilled labor. served caliphs. possible to become free/powerful
Nomadic invaders from Asia. Grew in power & influnce. attacked Baghadd in 1055
Capture of Jeruslem. Europe won because of surprise attack. They lose control less than 100 years later.
Muslim general that recaptures the land that was lost in the first Crusade.
Impact of Crusades on the Europe
A LOT of cultural contact. Resurgence of learning new knowledge. Since they didn't have a lot of old history because it is in the Middle East- find it. Started the Renaissance.
Impact of Crusades on Islam
Had little impact. they were already advanced in knowledge and culture.
Language adopted by Abbasid court
Persian. almost replaces Arabic- religious language.
In Africa. lacked political concentration. organized around kinship with a group of elders.
First African region converted to Islam by 700 AD
North Africa- has contact with religion.
Two Islamic reform movements in Northern Africa. Burgur- first to convert and spread it south
Only christian country - axum
grasslands south of Sahara. Sahel means coastline of desert
"The Lion Prince" founded the Mali empire - the Malinke
"keepers of tradition". traditional record keepers- storytellers. become key advisors to Mali kings.
Muslim slave trade in Africa
they looked for household jobs, beauty, intellegence to bring back to Abbasid empire. New point of contact- converted to culture and Islam
Institution of slavery in Muslim society
adopted Islam and culture
Culture of East African trade ports
Trade in Indian Ocean by Arab coast of Africa. Transmitting language and religion. Bantu people speak Swahili- combo of Bantu language and Arab merchants
Eastern half of Rome. Eastern Orthodox Christian. Linked more to the Silk Road, traded luxury.
Russia's Relationship to Byzantines
Byzantine spread their religion through trade. Blamer- prince of Kevia choose byzantine religion. Culture and language makes connection. "Third Rome" to continue the legacy of Rome
Capital of Byzantine empire. established by Constantine
Church in Constanople- largest church in the Christain world with the largest dome in the world
Official language of Byzantine Empire
Greek. Eastern half- Greek was common so it became the official.
Justinian's camaign to reunite Rome
wanted to reunite Rome to its formal glory. not successful :(
Byzatine emperor- waged a lot of war against Bulger. "Hammer of the Bulgers"(him) bet them.
Byzantine weapon- mixtures of chemicals that ignite in water. Used against Ottoman Empire.
Hellenism in Byzantine culture
Greek culture & artistic trend cause of Alexander the Great
Meaning of the Middle Ages
time between the Fall of Rome and the Reniancance
Scandinavian raiders. Fuatalism emerges- political & social order
agreement with peasents and landlords- tied to the land for protection
farmers who lived on landlord's land & in return gave some of the crop to him
plow that allowed to cultivate deeper into the ground- easier for peasants
Early Frank king accepted Christianity to gain more power against the pagan regional rulers. starts wave of Christianity
Benedict of Nursia
writer of "The Rule" - rules of the monk life
The Franks royal family that took over France in the 8 century. Charles Martel fought back against Muslim advance.
Charles the great first Holy Roman Empire- largest empire since Rome
Feudalism and vassals
F: Linked military elites (vassals), mostly landlords, who could not afford the horses and iron. V: lesser lords that require protection from the F. Lords-vassals(used to be knights)-serfs