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Flashcards in Testicular Disorders Deck (46)
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1

What age group is typically affected by a testicular seminoma?

Those aged 30-50

2

What age group is typically affected by a testicular teratoma?

Those aged 20-30

3

Which type of testicular tumour may occur before puberty?

Teratoma

4

What are the main risk factors for the development of testicular cancer?

Undescended testes, infertility, family history, mumps orchitis

5

What genetic syndrome comes with an increased risk of developing testicular cancer?

Klinefelter's syndrome

6

90% of testicular tumours are what histological type?

Germ cell tumours

7

Which type of testicular tumour has a solid, homogenous, pale macroscopic appearance?

Seminoma

8

What type of testicular tumour has a variable macroscopic appearance including solid areas, cysts, haemorrhage and necrosis?

Teratoma

9

Testicular cancers spread via the lymphatics to which lymph nodes?

Para-aortic nodes

10

Testicular cancers spread haematogenously to where?

Liver and lungs

11

If an older male was to present with a primary testicular tumour, what type of cancer would this be most likely to be?

Lymphoma

12

What is the most common primary cancer to metastasise to the testicle?

Prostate

13

How do testicular tumours tend to present?

Painless testicular swelling or lump

14

What is the first line investigation for a suspected testicular cancer?

Ultrasound

15

What tumour marker is produced by trophoblastic elements and is elevated in both seminomas and teratomas of the testicle?

Beta hCG

16

What tumour marker is produced by yolk sac elements and is elevated in teratomas of the testicle?

AFP

17

What is the initial treatment for all testicular cancers?

Inguinal orchidectomy

18

Which type of testicular tumour is incredibly radiosensitive?

Seminomas

19

What adjuvant therapy is given in addition to surgery in those with testicular seminomas?

Radiotherapy +/- chemotherapy

20

When is adjuvant therapy required in addition to surgery for testicular teratomas? What is this therapy?

If stage II or higher, chemotherapy is given

21

Which testicular swellings will transilluminate?

Hydroceles and spermatoceles

22

If you cannot feel above a scrotal mass, what is the mass most likely to be?

Inguino-scrotal hernia

23

In which decade is the peak incidence of testicular torsion?

2nd decade of life

24

How does testicular torsion typically present?

Acute unilateral testicular pain +/- nausea/vomiting

25

Where else may pain be felt by someone with testicular torsion, other than the testicle itself?

Abdomen

26

Absence of the cremasteric reflex on examination of a testicle is suggestive of what diagnosis?

Testicular torsion

27

What investigation can be used to demonstrate testicular torsion, but is usually not performed at the expense of surgical exploration?

Doppler ultrasound

28

The management for testicular torsion is urgent surgery. What surgical procedures are patients consented for?

Bilateral ochidopexy and possible orchidectomy

29

The outcome is best if testicular torsion is surgically fixed within what timeframe?

< 6 hours

30

Torsion of the appendage testis (hydatid of Morgagni) is typically seen in individuals of what age?

7 - 12