Text Chapter 10: Speciation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Text Chapter 10: Speciation Deck (24):
1

Speciation Depends on

isolation (lack of gene flow), genetic divergence

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Adaptive Radiation

one species gives rise to many new species in a short period of time

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Extinction

death of all members of a species

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Microevolution

change within a population or species

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Macroevolution

change to a new population or species

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Coevolution

species adjust together to maintain relationship

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Convergent Evolution

similar phenotypes arise in unrelated species as a result of environmental similarities

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Divergent Evolution

different phenotypes arise as related species encounter environmental similarities

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Allopatric Speciation

occurs a result of geographical isolation, one group separates from the population, separate evolutionary pressures cause different genetic changes in both groups, most common mechanism

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Sympatric Speciation

occurs in the same location, due to ecological isolation or polyploidy

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Speciation by Polyploidy

occurs for plants that have a sudden change in numbers of chromosome sets (chromosomes duplicate but do not separate, continued breeding with the offspring of a plant whose chromosomes duplicated but did not separate)

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Premating Isolating Mechanism

prevent mating between individuals of different species

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Postmating Isolating Mechanism

interferes with development, viability, or fertility, or offspring from matings between species

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Behavioral Isolation (Premating Isolating Mechanism)

species-specific signals and elaborate behaviors to attract mates

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Ecological Isolation (Premating Isolating Mechanism)

difference in way of life

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Ecological Isolation (Premating Isolating Mechanism)

difference in way of life

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Geographical Isolation (Premating Isolating Mechanism)

the separation of two populations of the same species or breeding group by a physical barrier

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Mechanical Isolation (Premating Isolating Mechanism)

differences in structure of sexual organs

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Temporal Isolation (Premating Isolating Mechanism)

difference in timing

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Gametic Incompatibility (Postmating Isolating Mechanism)

the sperm of one species will not fertilize the egg of another species

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Hybrid Invariability (Postmating Isolating Mechanism)

hybrids between two species do not survive

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Hybrid Infertility (Postmating Isolating Mechanism)

hybrid is sterile

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Factors that can Lead to Adaptive Radiation

mass extinction, colonization events, evolutionary innovations

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Factors that Lead to Extinction

localized distribution of a species, overspecialization, competition, habitat change and destruction