Text Chapter 26: Immune System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Text Chapter 26: Immune System Deck (36):
1

Physical Barreirs

skin, mucous membranes

2

Non-Specific Internal Defenses

works against many types of invaders- phagocytosis, natural killer cells, inflammation, fever

3

Specific Immune Response

pecific response to each invader- cell-mediated immunity, humoral immunity

4

Properties of the Immune System

specificity, memory, discrimination

5

Specificity

unique response against each invader -plasma cells, T cells

6

Memory

increased response at next invasion- B cells and T cells

7

Discrimination

ability to distinguish “self” from “non-self” - T cells

8

Three Types of Cells Involved in the Immune Response

macrophages, B cells, T cells

9

Macrophages

engulf invaders

10

B Cells

humoral immunity

11

T Cells

cell-mediated immunity

12

Humoral Immunity

mediated by macromolecules found in extracellular fluids

13

Cell-Mediated Immunity

an immune response that does not involve antibodies, but rather involves the activation of phagocytes

14

Plasma Cell

white blood cells that secrete large volumes of antibodies

15

B Cell

a type of lymphocyte in humoral immunity

16

Memory B Cell

respond in future invasions

17

Helper T Cell

stimulates division of selected B cells, stimulates activity of cytotoxic T cells, responds in future infections

18

Cytotoxic T Cell

destroys infected body cells by forming pores in the cell membrane

19

Antigen

molecules on the invader that are recognized by the immune system

20

Antibody

protein that recognizes antigens

21

Variable Region

region on the antibody that binds to antigen

22

Constant Region

region on the antibody that binds to cells or other antibodies

23

Structure of an Antibody

Y-shape, 2 heavy chains and 2 light chains, constant region and variable region

24

How the Structure of an Antibody relates to its Function

the tip of the Y-shape (variable region) is specific for a particular antigen

25

Mechanism for Generating Variation among Antibodies

enzymes in the nucleus rearrange DNA to make unique variable regions for each antibody

26

Four Functions of Antibodies

phagocyte signaling, antigen clumping, prevention of cell entry, complement protein signaling

27

Phagocyte Signaling

bound antibodies promote phagocytosis of invader

28

Antigen Clumping

bound antibodies cause groupings of free antigens and cells for phagocytosis

29

Prevention of Cell Entry

pathogens coated with antibodies cannot gain access to cells

30

Complement Protein Signaling

bound antibodies recruit a set of proteins that creates holes in the invaders membranes

31

Diseases of the Immune System

Hay fever, transfusion reactions, Rh disease, immunization, viral and bacterial infections, reaction to poison ivy, Tuberculin test, reaction to bee stings, graft (organ) rejection, cancer prevention

32

Basis for Allergic Reactions

allergies result from overly sensitized mast cells releasing histamine and cytokines in response to allergens

33

Functions of the Skeletal System

supports the body, provides a lever for muscle action, protects vital structures, protects blood cells, stores minerals and fat

34

Cells Involved in Specificity

plasma cells, T cells

35

Cells Involved in Memory

B cells, T cells

36

Cells Involved in Discrimination

T cells