Text Chapter 4: Photosynthesis Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Text Chapter 4: Photosynthesis Deck (32):
1

Light-Dependent “Photo” Reactions

energy from light is used to form ATP (energy carrier) and NADPH (electron carrier), occur in photosystems located in thylakoid membranes

2

Light-Independent “Synthesis” Reactions

produce glucose using as a CO2 as a carbon source, occur in stroma of chloroplast, use ATP and NADPH from light-dependent reactions, six turns of the cycle produce one glucose molecule

3

Mesophyll Cells

contain chloroplasts for photosynthesis

4

Bundle Sheath Cells

a layer of cells that form a sheath surrounding the vascular bundles

5

C3 Pathway

CO2 enters the Calvin Cycle to produce glucose

6

C4 Pathway

difference in location) CO2 is incorporated into a 4-Carbon compound in mesophyll cells and released into more interior bundle sheath cells for the Calvin Cycle

7

CAM Pathway

(difference in timing): CO2 incorporated into 4-Carbon compound stored in vacuoles at night and released for Calvin Cycle during the day

8

Thylakoid

location of “photo” reactions, where light is converted into chemical energy

9

Stroma

location of “synthesis” reactions, where chemical energy from the “photo” reactions is used to synthesize sugars

10

Chlorophyll a and b

major photosynthetic pigments, absorb violet, blue, and red wavelengths, reflect green

11

Carotenoids

absorb blue and green wavelengths, reflect red, yellow, and orange

12

ATP

energy carrier

13

NADPH

electron carrier

14

Rubisco

most abundant enzyme on earth- plucks carbon atoms from CO2 molecules in the air (during fixation)

15

ATP Synthase

transfers hydrogen ions from the thylakoid back into the stroma as ATP

16

Photosystem

a biochemical mechanism in plants by which chlorophyll absorbs light energy for photosynthesis

17

Light-Harvesting Complex

water is split to supply new electrons, light energy boosts an electron into the reaction center for transport into the electron transport chain

18

Primary Electron Acceptor

first molecule in the electron transport chain to accept the electron and pass it along

19

Electron Transport Chain

series of compounds that transfer electrons from electron donors to electron acceptors via redox reactions, and couples this electron transfer with the transfer of protons (H+ ions) across a membrane.

20

Carbon Fixation

the enzyme Rubisco plucks Carbon atoms from CO2 molecules in the air. The carbon atoms are attached to an organic molecule

21

Sugar Creation

modifying the organic molecule into a 3-carbon sugar

22

Regeneration

some molecules of G3P are used to regenerate the original organic molecule, using original energy for ATP

23

Water-Splitting Photosystem

light energy is used to transfer electrons to primary electron acceptor and go down the electron transport chain. Electrons donated by water. ATP is built by the release of hydrogen ions in the thylakoid

24

NADPH-Producing Photosystem

identical to water-splitting photosystem, except that electrons are donated by the electron transport chain. High-energy electrons are passed to NADP+, creating NADPH

25

Importance of Pigments and Photosystems in Photosynthesis

light-dependent (“photo”) reactions occur in photosystems located in thylakoid membranes. Organized array of pigment molecules, each photosystem contains a light-harvesting complex with a reaction center and an electron transport system ——-pigments capture light of a certain wavelength

26

Chemiosmosis in Chloroplasts

diffusion of protons through channel in ATP synthase gives energy for ATP synthesis

27

Significance of C3 or Carbon-Fixing Reactions

make carbohydrates, energy efficient

28

Cellular Respiration v. Photosynthesis

Cellular respiration starts with glucose and ends with CO2 and water, occurs in the inner membrane of the mitochondria
Photosynthesis starts with CO2, ends with glucose, occurs in chloroplast

29

Based on the Lab, Factors that can increase the Rate of Photosynthesis

light, CO2

30

Reactions that use Water

light-dependent reactions AND light-independent reactions

31

Reactions that Release Oxygen

light-dependent "photo" reactions

32

Reactions that use Energy from ATP

light-independent "synthesis" reactions