Flashcards in TEXTBOOK ch.6 Deck (21):
What is the sociocultural perspective?
children are products of their culture
Gauvain argues that cultural contexts organize cognitive development in 3 ways and give examples:
1) culture often defines which cognitive activities are valued (ex: in western culture, youngsters are expected to learn to read but not to navigate using the stars)
2) culture provides tools that shape the way children think (ex: skills used to solve arithmetic probelms depend on whether their culture provides a paper and pencil or a calculator)
3) higher-level cultural practices help children to organize their knowledge and communicate it to others (ex: in most north american schools, students are expected to think and work alone rather than collaborate)
For Vygotsky and other sociocultural theorists, the social nature of cognitive development is captured in the concept of ______, which refers to ________
intersubjectivity: mutual, shared understanding among participants in an activity
What is guided participation?
cognitive growth results from children's involvement in structured activities with others who are more skilled than they
What are Vygotsky's 3 most important contributions to cognitive development?
-concepts of zone of proximal development, scaffolding and private speech
Vygotsky's view on cognitive development. What is the zone of proximal development?
-the difference between what a child can do with assistance and what they can do on their own
Vygotsky's view on cognitive development. What is scaffolding?
-a teaching style that matches the amount of assistance to the learner's needs
Vygotsky's view on cognitive development. What is private speech?
-comments not directed to others but intended to help children regulate their own behaviour (talking to yourself)
Finally, as children gain ever greater skill, ____ speech becomes ____ speech, Vygotsky's term for thought.
Vygotsky theorized that children's language use during tasks was not (as Piaget thought) ____ and nonsocial, but was in fact ____ - communicating with the self.
What is the core-knowledge theory?
-innate capability to easily acquire knowledge in such specialized domains of evolutionary importance such as language, knowledge of objects, and understanding of people
What is Vygotsky's sociocultural theory of cognitive development?
-views it as a sociocultural enterprise; experts use scaffolding to help a novice acquire knowledge; children use private speech to regulate their own thinking
What is the information-processing theory?
-based on the computer metaphor; view cognitive change in terms of better strategies, increased capacity of working memory, more effective inhibitory and executive processing, more automatic processing, and faster processing speed
What are the three theories of cognitive development?
Vygotsky's sociocultural theory, information-processing theory, core-knowledge theory
A fundamental part of young children's theory of living things is a commitment to teleological explanations, what are they?
children believe that living things and parts of living things exist for a purpose
Young children's theories of living things are also rooted in essentialism, what is it?
children believe that all living things have an essence that can't be seen but gives a living thing its identity
Many four-year-olds' theories of biology include: (6)
-movement, growth, internal parts, inheritance (realize that offspring will resemble parents), illness, healing
What is naive psychology?
our informal beliefs about other people and their behaviour
Between ages 2 and 5, children develop a theory of mind. What is it?
a naive understanding of the relations between mind and behaviour
By about age 3, an important change takes place: Children clearly distinguish the ____ world from the _____ world