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Flashcards in TG - 1 Deck (55):
1

colorectal cancer red flags

tenesmus, PR blood/melena, bowel habit changes, symptoms of anaemia

2

where does colon cancer spread to

usually liver

Also: lung, brain, bone

3

Gastric cancer red flags

dyspepsia (indigestion), dysphasia, early satiety, vomiting, anaemia, abdo pain

4

risks for gastric

H. pylori and smoking

5

gastric cancer investigations

FBC, endoscopy

6

oesophageal cancer type that is most common

adenocarcinoma

7

oesophageal cancer type that is most caused by drinking

squamous

8

red flags for oesophageal

dysphagia, regard, vomiting, melaena, appetite loss,

9

who gets hepatocellular carcinoma

those with cirrhosis

10

what is a cholangiocarcinoma

ductal adenocarcinoma at hepatic duct bifurcation

11

non small cell lung cancers include

squamous, adenocarcinomas, large cell

12

what complications can you get from small cell

SIADH

13

squamous cell lung cancer can cause what electrolyte issue

squamous cell = hypercalcaemia

14

what is a pancoast tumour

apical lung tumour that has evaded cervical sympathetic plexus

15

which typre of lung cancer usually causes a pan coast tumour

squamous cell

16

how may a lung cancer with a pan coast tumour first present

horners

17

Reed-sternberg cells

multinucleate giant cells = Hodgkins lymphoma

18

what infection is associated with both types of lymphomas

EBV

19

pain induced by alcohol

hodgkins

20

complication of hodgkins

leukaemia

21

what more common: hodgkins or non-hodgkin

non

22

child with peripheral lymphadenopathy, lower right sided abdo mass and obstruction

burkitts lymphoma (type of non-hodgkin)

23

burkitts is what type of cell

high grade B cells **B for burkitts

24

older lady, heads, neck, lung and gastic lymphadenopathy, dyspepsia

MALT lymphoma

25

how do you treat burkitts

chemo very affective

26

how do you you treat hodgkins

chemoradiation

27

subclavicular lymph node think

hodgkins

28

MALT lymphoma treatment

H. pylori treatment

29

age for hodgkins

young adults 15-30 or > 50

30

age for non-hodgkins

middle aged

31

leukaemia investigations

blood film => bone marrow aspiration

32

what might be found on examination of someone with leukaemia

splenomegaly

33

what is diagnostic of ACUTE leukaemia on blood film

> 20% blasts

34

types of leukaemia

CLL
AML
CML
ALL

35

smudge cells

CLL

36

philadelphia chromosme

Chronic myeloid leukaemia = 9;22 translocation tyrosine kinase

37

chronic myeloid (CML) treatment

imatinib (tyrosine kinase inhibitor)

38

which leukaemia is associated with p53

Chronic Lymphocytic (CLL)

39

leukaemia common in children

acute lymphoblastic (ALL)

40

which leukaemia do downs get

acute lymphoblastic

41

ALL treatment

chemo + methotrexate maintenance

42

which leukaemia can lead to lymphoma

Chronic lymphocytic (CLL)

43

acute lymphomas will show what on blood film

immature WBC

44

Chronic lymphomas will show what on blood film

mature WBCs

45

leukocytosis (usually neutropenic) suggest what type of leukaemia

Chronic

46

back pain and painless jaundice

pancreatic cancer

47

pancreatic cancer diagnostic test

USS (endoscopic best)

48

pancreatic cancer surgery is called

whipples

49

most common type of pancreatic cancer

exocrine ductal adenocarcinomas

50

questions to ask in prostate history

LUTS, UTI, haematuria, haematospermia, perineal pain, impotence, tenesmus

51

prostate investigations

PSA

52

prostate treatment

watch and wait if gleason score < 7
prostatectomy if localised
If metastatic anti-androgens: goserelin

53

where does prostate cancer spread to

BONE

54

What is PSA

protase inhibitor that decreases semen viscosity. Also raised in BPH, retention, prostatitis, catheterisation

55

Investigation if PSA is high

transrectal biopsy