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Flashcards in TG - 1 Deck (70):
1

most common peripheral aneurism and is associated with AAA

popliteal (usually bilateral)

2

AAA are usually below what anatomically

below renal artery

3

what size AAA will you consider surgery

>5.5cm (EVAR - endovasuclar aneurism repair)

4

AAA and driving

must tell DVLA if >6cm, cannot drive if >6.6cm/5.5cm if HGV

5

AAA rupture management

cross match + graft surgery

6

most common site for aortic dissection

aortic arch or descending aorta

7

abdo pain through to back hypotension

AAA rupture

8

chest pain through to back with hypertension

aortic dissection

9

dissection investigations

ECG (ischaemia) + MRI

10

dissection management

IV beta blocker + surgery

11

foregut

pharynx to duodenum

12

foregut blood supply

coeliac trunk

13

midgut

duodenum to hepatic flexure

14

midgut blood supply

superior mesenteric artery

15

hindgut

hepatic flexure to anal canal

16

what can cause post-prandial abdo pain

chronic mesenteric ischaemia "intestinal angina"

17

chronic mesenteric ischaemia treatment

mesenteric endarterectomy

18

LIF pain with nausea

ishaemic colitis

19

cholecystitis or ascending cholangitis causes jaundice?

ascending (common bile duct blocked, in cholecystitis only cystic duct blocked)

20

cholecystitis or ascending cholangitis causes peritinism

cholesytitis

21

diverticulitis treatment

co-amox

22

Hartmann’s procedure -

sigmoid colectomy, rectal stump, temporary end colostomy

23

pancolectomy

removal of all colon

24

Whipple’s procedure

emoval of gallbladder, head of pancreas, D1/2 (pylorus-sparing)

25

hernia medial to pubic tubercle

inguinal (can be direct or indirect)

26

which type of inguinal hernia can affect testes

indirect

27

which hernias must be repaired

epigastric and femoral

28

below and lateral from pubic tubercle

femoral

29

rolling hiatus hernia is when

stomach herniates

30

sliding hiatus hernia is when

gastrooesophageal junction ascends

31

coffee bean appearance on X-ray

volvulus

32

bilious vomiting in adults

volvulus

33

investigation for chronic pancreatitis

faecal elastase (marker of exocrine insufficiency)

34

which genetic condition is associated with chronic pancreatitis

CF

35

chronic pancreatitis management

Creon (enzyme replacement)

36

what is paraphimosis

foreskin gets trapped behind glans

37

what is peyronies disease

fibrous plaque causing erect penile angulation

38

anal fissure treatment

topical GTN

39

what must be avoided in anal fissures

topical steroids

40

arterial foot ulcer will have what appearance

punched out

41

arterial ulcer investigations

doppler, ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI)

42

peripheral vascular disease treatment

clopidogrel

43

venous ulcer appearance

large, shallow, painless

44

which type of leg ulcer will have pain

arterial - usually nocturnal pain

45

leg ulcer on medial malleoli

venous

46

sudden severe testicular pain / swelling, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, retracted testes

testicular torsion

47

testicular torsion diagnosis

usually clinical but can do doppler USS

48

testicular torsion treatment

manual reduction or surgery (orchidopexy) may need to do orchidectomy (test removal) if damage is too much.

49

who gets epididymal cysts

those with CF
>40yrs

50

what must be investigated in those with hydrocele

TB or malignancy

51

which testicular pathology can lead to sub fertility

varicocele (venous dilation in testes - bag of worms)

52

3 types of hip fractures

femoral neck, intra-trochanteric, sub-trochanteric

53

hip fracture: undisplaced or young

internal fixation

54

hip fracture: displaced intracapsular/less fit

hemiarthroplasty

55

hip fracture: displaced intracapsular/fit

total hip replacement

56

colles fracture, which bone is displaced and in what direction

dorsal displacement of of radius

57

what is the opposite of a collet fracture

smiths (radius displaced towards palm)

58

dinner fork deformity

Colles

59

which nerve can get damaged in collet fracture

median

60

what is compartment syndrome

compartment pressure exceeding capillary pressure

61

symptoms of compartment syndrome

pain on passive stretch

62

compartment syndrome treatment

decompression: open fasciotomy

63

investigations in upper GI bleed

endoscopy

64

treatment for vatical bleed

terlipressin, band ligation

65

first line drug in BPH

tamsulosin (alpha-blocker)

66

which drug shrinks and slows BPH

finasteride

67

most renal stones are made up of what

calcium

68

what is a KUB

abdominal xray

69

drug used in conservative treatment of renal stones

diclofenac

70

drugs given to prevent renal stones

- thiazides (increase calcium reabsorption in distal tubule)
- allopurinol (reduces uric acid production in body)