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Flashcards in TG -2 Deck (54):
1

breast cancer staging


• Staging - I (local, < 2cm), II (axillary node, < 5cm), IIIA (> 5cm) / B (spread), IV (distal mets)

2

Hormone receptor drug (breast) given to pre-menopausal woman

tamoxifen

3

Hormone receptor drug (breast) given to post-menopausal woman

anastrozole

4

drug given in HER2 positive breast cancer

herceptin

5

tamoxifen risks

VTE and endometrial cancer

6

anastrozole risks

worsens menopausal symptoms

7

herceptin risks

cardiotoxicity

8

where does breast cancer spread to

BONE, liver, lung and brain

9

most common cell type in cervical cancer

squamous cell

10

CIN I

basal third of epithelium

11

CIN II

basal 2/3rds

12

CIN III

full thickness epithelium

13

HPVs involved in cervical cancers

16, 18, 31, 33

14

cervical cancer risks

vaginal discharge and intra menstrual bleeding

15

staging system for cervical cancers

FIGO

16

FIGO stage I

cervix only

17

FIGO stage II

beyond cervix

18

FIGO stage III

into pelvic wall side wall

19

FIGO stage IV

distant mets

20

when do you do loop excision or diathermy and what are the risks

CIN II/III - risk of pre-term delivery

21

when do you do cone biopsy

if non invasive stage I

22

ages that get smeer

every 3 years 25-49
every 5 years 50 - 65

23

endometrial thickness that suggest endometrial cancer

> 5cm

24

most common type of renal cancer

renal (clear cell)

25

genetics associated with renal cell carcinoma

chromosome 3 mutation

26

investigations for renal cell carcinoma

CT, CXR (cannon ball mets)

27

Renal cell carcinoma treatment

partial nephrectomy if small
interferon if metastatic

28

where does renal cell carcinoma met to

LUNG, bone, liver, pancreas

29

kidney cancer seen in kids

Wilm's nephroblastoma

30

wilms neuroblastoma treatment

nephrectomy with chemo

31

most common type of bladder cancer

transitional cell carcinoma

32

bladder cancer symptoms

painless haematuria

33

treatment for non invasive bladder cancer

transurethral resection (TURB)+ intravesicle chemo

34

treatment for invasive bladder cancer

cystectomy with ileal urostomy

35

treatment for metastatic bladder cancer

chemo

36

what is an acoustic neuroma

tumour of schwann cells of vestibulocochlear nerve (CNVIII)

37

how will an acoustic neuroma present

unilateral sensorineural hearing loss and absent corneal reflex

38

investigation for acoustic neuroma

audiology and MRI

39

acoustic neuroma treatment

conservative if small
microsurgery
radio surgery

40

most common brain tumour

glioma (glioblastoma)

41

what is a meningioma

benign dura mater tumour

42

how might a glioma show up on CT

ring enhancing lesion (bright white ring)

43

what is it called when you remove a teste

inguinal orchidectomy

44

most common type of thyroid cancer

papillary

45

Ig in myeloma

IgG

46

symptoms that suggest myeloma

bone pain, pathological fractures

47

what is myeloma

clonal plasma cell expansion

48

investigation for myeloma

electrophoresis - of urine to look for bence jones protein (monoclonal globin)

49

myeloma treatment

chemo and bisphophonates

50

what is osteosarcoma

tumour of long bone metaphyses (usually knee)

51

where does osteosarcoma spears to

lung

52

MEN I affects what mostly

parathyroid = hyperparathyroidism

53

MEN II which cancer

medullary thyroid cancer

54

most common cancer to cause superior vena cava obstruction

lung