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Orthopedic Impairments > The Ankle and Foot > Flashcards

Flashcards in The Ankle and Foot Deck (28):
1

Each foot contains:

___ bones

___ joints

___ muscles

28 bones

30 joints

100 muscles

2

Primary Mobile Joint Names

  • Talocrural (Talotibial)
  • Subtalar (Talocalcaneal)
  • Metatarso-phalangeal (MTP)

3

Primary Moderate Moving joints

  • Midtarsal (made up of 2 joints)
    • Talonavicular
    • Calcaneocuboid
  • Metatarsocuboid (for 4th and 5th metatarsals)
  • Navicular-cuneiform (navicular with all 3 cuneiforms)
  • “Lis Franc” (aka tarso-metatarsal (TMT) or cuneiform-metatarsal)

4

Sections of the Foot

  • Hindfoot
    • Calcaneus and Talus
  • Midfoot
    • Tarsals (navicular, cuboid and cuneiforms)
  • Forefoot
    • Metatarsals and Phalanges

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A image thumb
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7

Open Kinetic Chain

Pronation

and

Supination

  • Pronation
    • Calcaneal
      • Dorsiflexion
      • Eversion
      • Horizontal Abduction
  • Supination
    • Calcaneal
    • Plantarflexion
    • Inversion
    • Horizontal Adduction

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Open Kinetic Chain

Pronation

and

Supination

  • Pronation
    • Calcaneal Eversion
    • Talar Plantarflexion and Horizontal Adduction
  • Supination
    • Calcaneal Inversion
    • Talar Dorsiflexion and Horizontal Abduction

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Primary Dorsiflexors muscles

–Tibialis Anterior

–Extensor hallucis longus

–Extensor digitorum longus

–Fibularis tertius

10

Primary Plantarflexors muscles

–Gastrocnemius

–Soleus

–Plantaris (although weak)

11

Secondary Plantarflexors muscles

–Tibialis posterior

–Flexor digitorum longus

–Flexor hallucis longus

–Fibularis longus

–Fibularis brevis

12

Primary Evertors muscles

–Fibularis longus and brevis

13

Primary Invertors muscle

–Tibialis Posterior

14

•Secondary Evertors muscle

–Fibularis tertius and Extensor digitorum longus

15

•Secondary Invertors

–Flexor digitorum longus, Flexor hallucis longus, TA, Ext hallucis longus

16

Lateral Arch Support

•Tendon of peroneus longus, brevis, tertius

•Plantar aponeurosis

•Abductor digiti minimi

•Flexor digitorum brevis 4 & 5

•Long plantar ligament

•Short plantar ligament

17

Medial Longitudinal Support

•Tom, dick and Harry

•Plantar calcaneonavicular ligament

•Plantar fascia

•Abductor Hallucis

•Flexor digitorum brevis II, III

18

Talocrural Joint

  • Concave tibial plafond and convex talar dome
  • Axis-- posterolateral inferior to anteromedial superior, approximately 15 degrees off the frontal plane.
  • Triplanar motion
    • PF-Add-inv
    • DF-Abd-ever
  • Open pack position-- slight PF (10 degrees)
  • Closed pack position-- maximal DF

19

•What’s the name of the ligament on medial side?

Deltoid – 4 parts on medial side coming from the navicular, talus and calcaneus and connecting to the medial malleolus

20

•Name the Lateral stabilizing ligaments:

–Anterior talofibular

–Calcaneofibular

–Posterior talofibular

21

Describe retinaculum and what are the names?

band around tendons that holds them in place

  • Transverse crural (superior extensor retinaculum)
  • Cruciate crural (inferior extensor retinaculum)

22

What do the lateral ankle ligaments do?

Help resist anterior/posterior glide of talus on the tibia

Help resist dorsiflexion and plantarflexion and inversion

23

3 Important lateral ankle ligaments

  1. ATF
  2. CF
  3. PTF

24

When is ATF, CF, and PTF under greatest tension? What are their purposes? 

  • ATF under greatest tension in plantar flexion
    • Resists ankle inversion, plantar flexion, and anterior glide of the talus
  • CF under greatest tension in dorsiflexion
    • resists ankle inversion- more so when neutral or dorsiflexed
  • PTF under greatest strain in dorsiflexion
    • Limits posterior talar glide and talar external rotation

25

•Strength of Lateral Ligaments (based on cadaver loading force)

•Deltoid ligament resists eversion, external rotation and plantarflexion 

Anterior talofibular (139 N)

Posterior talofibular (261 N)

Calcaneofibular (346 N)

Deltoid ligament resists eversion, external rotation and plantarflexion (714 N)

26

__% of all ankle sprains are ____sprains.

85% of all ankle sprains are inversion sprains.

27

Ankle sprain Typical Basic Grading scale:

Grade 1 = injury to the ATF

Grade 2 = injury to ATF and CF

Grade 3 = injury to all 3 lateral ankle ligaments (ATF, CF, PTF)

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