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Flashcards in The Atlantic Slave Trade Deck (51):
1

Slave

A person who is the property of someone else they have no right of freedom

2

Plantation

A large farm where cotton tobacco coffee or sugar cane is grown

3

Middle passage

The part of the Atlantic Ocean between the west coast of Africa and the west Indies the longest part of the journey made by captured Africans

4

Abolitionist

Someone who is against something that they believe is harmful to people or society

5

What was the main crop produced on the plantations in the Caribbean and when

The sugarcane plant was the main the main crop produce During the 18th and 19th century

6

How much sugar did the Caribbean produce consumed bye Western Europe

80 and 90%

7

The increased availability and popularity of sugar was due to

A steady increase in the standard of living before only the very rich could afford such luxuries as sugar
The discovery of more New World colonies which were ideally suited to the growing of luxury crops such as sugar

8

What happened between 1700 and 1709

Sugar demand increased dramatically due to popularity to sweeten luxury drinks such as coffee and tea

9

What happened in the 1700s

The average sugar consumption per person was 4 lb in weight

10

What happened in the 1800s

The average sugar consumption was 18 lb weight per person

11

What are other crops grown on the plantations

Coffee Indigo and rice

12

Why did you die become more popular and available

There was a steady increase in the standard of living before only rich people could pick sugar and other luxuries the discovery of more New World colonies which were ideally suited to the growing of luxury crops such as sugar

13

What happened by 1750

Sugar was very important to you that as sugar had overtaken green as the most valuable product in European trade

14

How much did sugar make of the European imports

It also made up of 50 which led to a lot of profit for Europe

15

Public meetings

I campaign method used by abolitionists
Were the best way to gain publicity for the cars before TV radio and Internet
The Society for the abolition of the slave trade had regular meetings with speakers who had firsthand experience with the slave trade
John Newton was the main speaker a former slave ship captain who became abolitionist

16

Books and leaflets

Campaign methods used by abolitionists
Many books and leaflets were made to let people read about the horrors of the slave trade
Olaudah equiano Wrote a book about his life as a slave in Barbados and hundreds of thousands of people also sign petitions calling for the abolition of the slave trade

17

Thomas Clarkson evidence and images

Campaign method used by abolitionists
Travelled around Britain and west Africa collecting evidence of Atlantic slavery
Went to long speaking to you as well he should audiences whips shackles and thumbscrews
He also collected trade goods made by Africa class man to show the skills that people had and to make people realise that they were better at other things Africa I could trade rather than slaves

18

Josiah Wedgewood evidence and images

Campaign methods used by abolitionists
Was a cracker and a well pottery owner who supported the abolitionist movement
His company produced that image of a kneeling African in chains raising his arms asking for mercy with the words (am I not a man and a brother?)
This design became the unofficial emblem of the abolitionist movement appearing on pendants pottery and brooches

19

William Blake evidence and images

Campaign methods used by the abolitionist movement
In the 1796 the writer and artist William Blake produced a book containing illustrations showing the cruelty of slavery and the slave trade
I famous illustration showed slave hung by the ribs to a gallows while still alive

20

Brookes slave ship
Evidence and images

Campaign method used by the abolitionists
Famous illustration produced into a poster in 1788 by antislavery group in Plymouth
Should the cruel overcrowded conditions
Showed slaves arranged on decks
The brookes were able to transport 454 sleeves by providing A space of 1.8 m by 0.41 m per each man

21

Sugar boycott

Campaign methods used by the abolitionists
Woman did all the shopping and cooking
A leaflet was produced in 1781 to suggest the most effective way to end the slave trade was for people to stop buying sugar
Women persuaded grocers to stop selling sugar produced by enslaved people and campaign to get families to stop consuming it
The boycott was a huge success even King George the third and his family took part

22

Campaign in parliament

Campaign method used by abolitionists
Petitions
Lobbying

23

Lobbying

Try to end with someone normally a member of Parliament and the government

24

Petitions

Written proposal is backed up by signatures which dated back to before the creation of the abolition of the slave trade society

25

William Pitt

1759 to 806
Was prime minister twice
Friend of Wilberforce
Supporter of abolition
Found it more difficult to support abolitionist after the Haiti revolt
Leading figures in the abolitionist movement

26

Hannah More

1745 to 1834
Leading figures in the abolitionist movement
She wrote the following words in a poem whenever to Africas shore I turn my eyes horrors of the deepest deadliest guilt once
She wrote many articles on abolition and is also known for encouraging women to join the abolitionist movement
Playwright Hannah Miller was an important figure in antislavery movement in the 1780s and 1790s

27

John Newton

Leading figures in the abolitionist movement
1725 to 1807
Was a captain on slave ships
Became a Christian and saw that slave trade was wrong
Trained as a church minister
Became an abolitionist
Campaign for an end to the slave trade
friend of William Wilberforce
Wrote the hymn amazing Grace

28

Oloudah Equiano

Leading figures in the abolitionist movement
Captured as a child and sold into slavery on Barbados
Bought his freedom in 1766
Wrote his autobiography in 1789
Married an English woman and settled in London
Became a leading figure in the abolition movement
Died before slave trade was abolished
1745 to the 31st of March 1797

29

William Wilberforce

Leading figures in the abolitionist movement
1759 to 1833
English politician who became the face of the abolitionist movement in parliament
Born in Hull into a rich merchant family
As a child was taken to heart the former slave ship captain John Newton preach in church
Studied at CambridgeUniversity and later became an MP
Regularly introduced bills to ban the slave trade in Parliament

30

Thomas Clarkson

Leading figures in the abolitionist movement
1760 to 1846
Came from a well of background and studied at Cambridge University
When studying won on a essay writing competition which studied the Issue of slavery
Made Clarkson determined to end slavery as he knew what was happening
In 1786 Clarkson met Granville sharp and they held a meeting which led to the making of society for the abolition of the slave trade in 1787

31

Granville sharp

Leading figures in the abolitionist movement
1735 to 1813
I civil servant who lived and worked in London
Fought many legal battles against slave owners in Britain
Took part in case to free enslaved African James Somerset who escaped from his master in Britain but recaptured
Sharp one case and scored an important legal victory when it was ruled but slaves couldn't be taken out of Britain against their will

32

Arawak

Native people of the west Indies

33

Bond servant

A person forced to work for a period of time

34

What happened when sugar production increased

The publics eating habits were influenced by the public beginning to consume jam sweet tea coffee cocoa and other sweetened foods in large quantities

35

Why was sugar production very important to the economy of Barbados

As 93% of islands exports were made up of sugar

36

What happened in 1775 with the west Indies

Producing 100,000 tons of sugar
Sugar was exported to Britain which it was consumed are we exported to other European countries
British merchant made huge profits which they spent on houses and land are reinvested in business and industry

37

Exported

Sent

38

What were the Arawak people first used for

To produce sugar they gradually died out from the diseases brought by the Europeans

39

What did bond servants face

Many problems such as death

40

Who was also said to work on the sugar plantations and why

Convicted criminals as this was very labour-intensive and there is a possibility of death

41

What did thousands of young British men agree

To sign a contract to work for 4 to 7 years

42

What were bond servants given

Three transported to the west Indies and after working there contracts they were free to make new lives for themselves

43

What did the very rich use sugar for

To sweeten exotic drinks such as coffee tea and chocolate

44

Who controlled many sugar produced islands

Portugal such as Madeira the canaries and Cape Varde islands

45

What did the Portuguese use West Africa for

I saw somewhere close as the Portuguese already had three connections with West Africa so when work is needed replaced for those who could not cope with the heavy work it seems like to look for workers from the African coast

46

What happened in the 16th and 17th century

Increased for sugar there won't improve standards of living which led to the growing population and economic change in European towns and cities which increased the demand for more and more sugar

47

Explain the reasons that the slave trade had a negative impact on the Caribbean Islands

Need to populations were cleared from the island/wiped out
Sleeves up rising to cause damage and distractions
Small farms were replaced by large plantations
Slave trade but not racist attitudes to the Caribbean
New diseases were introduced to the islands
Natural beauty of island landscapes were damaged by the growth of plantations

48

Explain the reasons why the slave trade was so important to Britain

Leave tree branch great wealth to British cities
Sleepy provided employment for many people such as jobs for sealers dockworkers Ropemakers
Manufactured goods made in Britain were traded in Africa or exported to the plantations
Glasgow made great profit from the trading tobacco and sugar
Bristol became wealthy through its involvement in the sugar trade
British cotton mills relied on supplies of sleep produced cotton

49

Describe the methods used by abolitionists. To try and end the slave trade

A diagram of a slave ship the bricks was also published other pamphlets and posters were produced
Wilberforce present to the build Parliament a numerous occasions to and the sleeve trade
John Newton a former slave ship captain preached against leave the
Newton at the hymn amazing grace

50

Describe the different stages of the Triangular trade

Slaves were held on slave factories on the west coast of Africa
Shipped off and departed from/arrived at the British ports such as Bristol Liverpool occasionally Glasgow
Cotton tobacco sugar coffee could be sold and return to Britain for a large profit
Ship sailed from Britain to Africa carry on manufactured goods
Manufactured goods guns alcohol glass bead pots and pans were exchanged for slaves

51

Describe why resistance for slaves was hard to do on plantations

Life on the plantations was controlled by very strict laws or codes
It was difficult for slaves with basic weapons to fight back against plantation owners who had guns
Plantation owners use bounty hunters/bloodhounds to track down runaway slaves
Many of the islands were small and there was little hope to flea the island
The brutal treatment of Captain slaves acted as a powerful deterrent to other slaves