The Autonomic nervous system and Nurotransmitters Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in The Autonomic nervous system and Nurotransmitters Deck (56):
1

Sympathetic responses generally are widespread because ________.

a. inactivation of acetylcholine is fairly slow
b. preganglionic fibres are long
c. postganglionic fibres are short
d. adrenalin is secreted into the blood as part of the sympathetic response

d. adrenalin is secreted into the blood as part of the sympathetic response

2

Autonomic ganglia contain ________.

a. the cell bodies of preganglionic neurons
b. synapses between postganglionic fibers and their effectors
c. the cell bodies of postganglionic neurons
d. synpases between upper and lower motor neurons

c. the cell bodies of postganglionic neurons

3

The secretions of the adrenal medulla act to supplement the effects of ________.
A) parasympathetic innervation
B) sympathetic stimulation
C) vagus nerve activity
D) neurosecretory substances

B) sympathetic stimulation

4

In contrast to the somatic nervous system, the autonomic nervous system uses ________.

A) a two efferent neuron chain
B) a two afferent neuron chain
C) no acetylcholine
D) both afferent and efferent fibers equally

A) a two efferent neuron chain

5

Preparing the body for the ʺfight-or-flightʺ response is the role of the ________.
A) sympathetic nervous system
B) cerebrum
C) parasympathetic nervous system
D) somatic nervous system

A) sympathetic nervous system

6

The parasympathetic nervous system is characterized by peripheral ganglia usually near the
________.

A) organs and by short postganglionic fibers
B) organs and by long postganglionic fibers
C) spinal cord and by short postganglionic fibers
D) spinal cord and by long postganglionic fibers

A) organs and by short postganglionic fibers

7

A drug that might be used specifically to reduce heart rate in cardiac patients could be
________.
A) anticholinesterase
B) epinephrine
C) norepinephrine
D) a beta-blocker

D) a beta-blocker

8

The parasympathetic ganglion that serves the eye is the ________.
A) ciliary ganglion
B) pterygopalatine ganglion
C) submandibular ganglion
D) otic ganglion

A) ciliary ganglion

9

Cardiovascular effects of the sympathetic division include all except ________.

A) constriction of most blood vessels

B) dilation of the vessels serving the skeletal muscles

C) increase of heart rate and force

D) dilation of the blood vessels serving the skin and digestive viscera

D) dilation of the blood vessels serving the skin and digestive viscera

10

Over 90% of all parasympathetic fibers are derived from cranial nerve number ________.
A) V
B) VII
C) X
D) XII

C) X

11

The ʺresting and digestingʺ division of the autonomic nervous system is the ________.
A) parasympathetic division
B) sympathetic division
C) somatic division
D) peripheral nervous system

A) parasympathetic division

12

Control of temperature, endocrine activity, and thirst are functions associated with the
________.
A) medulla
B) cerebellum
C) hypothalamus
D) thalamus

C) hypothalamus

13

Which of these effectors is not directly controlled by the autonomic nervous system?
A) smooth muscle
B) cardiac muscle
C) skeletal muscle
D) most glands

C) skeletal muscle

14

Which of the following is not a result of parasympathetic stimulation?

A) salivation
B) dilation of the pupils
C) increased peristalsis of the digestive viscera
D) elimination of urine

B) dilation of the pupils

15

The site of origin of the preganglionic fibers of the parasympathetic nervous system is the
________.

A) thoracolumbar region of the spinal cord
B) higher brain centers
C) sympathetic chain
D) brain stem and the sacral region of the spinal cord

D) brain stem and the sacral region of the spinal cord

16

Sympathetic responses generally are widespread because ________.

A) inactivation of ACh is fairly slow
B) NE and epinephrine are secreted into the blood as part of the sympathetic response
C) preganglionic fibers are short
D) preganglionic fibers are long

B) NE and epinephrine are secreted into the blood as part of the sympathetic response

17

Sympathetic nerves may leave the spinal cord at which vertebrae?
A) second cervical
B) third lumbar
C) first coccyx
D) first thoracic

D) first thoracic

18

The parasympathetic fibers of the ________ nerves innervate smooth muscles of the eye which
cause the lenses to bulge to accommodate close vision.

A) optic
B) oculomotor
C) trochlear
D) abducens

B) oculomotor

19

Fibers that enter and leave the sympathetic chain without synapsing form structures called
________.

A) white rami communicantes
B) gray rami communicantes
C) spinal nerves
D) splanchnic nerves

D) splanchnic nerves

20

Which is not a plexus of the vagus nerve?
A) cardiac
B) pulmonary
C) celiac
D) esophageal

C) celiac

21

Beta-blockers ________.
a. are potent antidepressants
b. have widespread sympathetic effects
c. increase a dangerously low heart rate
d. decrease heart rate and blood pressure

d. decrease heart rate and blood pressure

22

Which of the following is not an effect of sympathetic stimulation?

a. increased rate of heart contractions
b. dilation of the blood vessels serving the skin and kidneys
c. dilation of the blood vessels serving the skeletal muscles
d. increased strength of heart contractions

b. dilation of the blood vessels serving the skin and kidneys

23


Cranial nerves VII, IX, and X contain:

a. postganglionic fibres of the sympathetic nervous system
b. preganglionic fibres of the parasymapthetic nervous system
c. postganglionic fibres of the parasympathetic nervous system
d. preganglionic fibres of the symapthetic nervous system

b. preganglionic fibres of the parasymapthetic nervous system

24

The "resting and digesting" division of the autonomic nervous system is the ________.

a. peripheral nervous system
b. somatic division
c. parasympathetic division
d. sympathetic division

c. parasympathetic division

25

How would an attack by a mugger affect blood pressure?

a. Blood pressure would increase due to sympathetic nervous system stimulation.
b. Blood pressure would increase due to parasympathetic nervous system stimulation.
c. Blood pressure would decrease due to parasympathetic nervous system stimulation.
d. Blood pressure would decrease due to sympathetic nervous system stimulation.
c. Blood pressure would increase due to vagal nerve stimulation.

a. Blood pressure would increase due to sympathetic nervous system stimulation.

26

Which of these effectors is not directly controlled by the autonomic nervous system?

a. skeletal muscle
b. most glands
c. cardiac muscle
d. smooth muscle

a. skeletal muscle

27

Parasympathetic functions include ________.

a. lens accommodation for close vision
b. mobilizing storage energy sources
c. allowing the body to cope with an external threat
d. a stimulation of heart rate and force of contraction

a. lens accommodation for close vision

28

Sympathetic division stimulation causes ________.

a. decreased blood glucose and increased heart rate and blood pressure
b. increased blood glucose and decreased heart rate and blood pressure
c. increased blood glucose and increased heart rate and blood pressure
d. decreased blood glucose and decreased heart rate and blood pressure

c. increased blood glucose and increased heart rate and blood pressure

29

Which of the following is an excitatory neurotransmitter secreted by motor neurons innervating skeletal muscle?

a. noradrenalin
b. cholinesterase
c. gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)
d. acetylcholine

d. acetylcholine

30

An inhibitory CNS neurotransmitter is:

a. Acetylcholine
b. GABA
c. Noradrenalin
d. Glutamate

b. GABA

31

Which of the following is not an adrenergic receptor?

a. Alpha
b. Beta 1
c. Beta 2
d. Muscarinic

d. Muscarinic

32

The neurotransmitter released at a sympathetic autonomic ganglion is:

a. GABA
b. Noradrenalin
c. Acetylcholine
d. Adrenalin

c. Acetylcholine

33

Which of the following is not a chemical class of neurotransmitters?

a. acetycholine
b. nucleic acid
c. Peptides/neuropeptides
d. biogenic amines (monoamines)
e. amino acid

b. nucleic acid

34

Emotions influence autonomic reactions primarily through integration in the ________.

a. inferior colliculus
b. lateral geniculate of the thalamus
c. hypothalamus
d. lateral horn of the spinal cord

c. hypothalamus

35

Which of the following is not a neurotransmitter?

a. Noradrenalin
b. GABA
c. Acetylcholine
d. Sodium

d. Sodium

36

Which of the following statements is true?

a. Cell bodies of preganglionic neurons of sympathetic division are located in spinal cord only; cell bodies of parasympathetic division are in brain only.
b. Sympathetic ganglia contain neuron cell bodies; parasympathetic ganglia contain neuron terminals only.
c. Sympathetic ganglia are close to the spinal cord; parasympathetic ganglia are close to visceral organs served.
d. Sympathetic origin is craniosacral; parasympathetic is thoracolumbar.

c. Sympathetic ganglia are close to the spinal cord; parasympathetic ganglia are close to visceral organs served.

37

Commands which modifiy the functions of autonomic effectors originate from the:

a. primary motor cortex
b. hypothalamus
c. thalamus
d. somatosensory cortex

b. hypothalamus

38

Visceral reflex arcs differ from somatic in that ________.

A) visceral arcs contain two sensory neurons

B) somatic arcs contain one additional component that visceral arcs do not possess

C) visceral arcs involve two motor neurons

D) visceral arcs do not use integration centers

C) visceral arcs involve two motor neurons

39

The parasympathetic tone ________.

A) prevents unnecessary heart deceleration
B) accelerates activity of the digestive tract
C) determines normal activity of the urinary tract
D) causes blood pressure to rise

C) determines normal activity of the urinary tract

40

The autonomic nervous system ________.

A) cannot be self-controlled

B) has one primary division

C) is not affected by drugs

D) is directly controlled by the reticular formation of the brain stem

D) is directly controlled by the reticular formation of the brain stem

41

The white rami communicantes ________.

A) are found only in the C1-T1 cord segments

B) are unmyelinated

C) carry preganglionic axons to the sympathetic chain

D) carry postganglionic fibers to the periphery

C) carry preganglionic axons to the sympathetic chain

42

Erection of the penis or clitoris ________.

A) is primarily under sympathetic control

B) is primarily under parasympathetic control

C) is the result of coordinated activation by both sympathetic and parasympathetic input

D) depends very little on autonomic activation

B) is primarily under parasympathetic control

43

Which is a uniquely sympathetic function?
A) regulation of pupil size
B) regulation of cardiac rate
C) regulation of respiratory rate
D) regulation of body temperature

D) regulation of body temperature

44

Raynaudʹs disease ________.

A) is characterized by exaggerated vasoconstriction in the extremities

B) is induced by heat stress

C) occurs primarily in association with injury to the spinal cord

D) is frequently life-threatening

A) is characterized by exaggerated vasoconstriction in the extremities

45

Autonomic dysreflexia ________.

A) is also known as autonomic areflexia

B) involves uncontrolled activation of autonomic neurons

C) usually precedes spinal shock

D) results from overexcitatory input from the cortex

B) involves uncontrolled activation of autonomic neurons

46

In Hornerʹs Syndrome ________.

A) sympathetic innervation of a segment of the colon fails to develop

B) blood flow to the extremities is irregular

C) a vagotomy is required to reverse the pathology

D) damage to the sympathetic trunk causes loss of ability to sweat on one side

D) damage to the sympathetic trunk causes loss of ability to sweat on one side

47

In aging, autonomic inefficiency is often due to ________.

A) clogging of preganglionic axon terminals with filaments

B) cerebral hemorrhage

C) major loss of axons

D) peripheral vascular changes

A) clogging of preganglionic axon terminals with filaments

48

Sympathetic fibers leave the spinal cord in the ________.

A) craniosacral regions, and the postganglionic fibers secrete norepinephrine

B) thoracolumbar region, and the postganglionic fibers secrete acetylcholine

C) craniosacral region, and the postganglionic fibers secrete acetylcholine

D) thoracolumbar region, and the postganglionic fibers secrete norepinephrine

D) thoracolumbar region, and the postganglionic fibers secrete norepinephrine

49

32.Where would you not find an autonomic ganglion?

A) in the head
B) in the cervical region
C) close to the visceral effectors they serve
D) in the armpit

D) in the armpit

50

33.Sympathetic division stimulation causes ________.

A) decreased blood glucose, increased GI peristalsis, and increased heart rate and blood
pressure

B) increased blood glucose, increased GI peristalsis, and decreased heart rate and blood
pressure

C) increased blood glucose, decreased GI peristalsis, and increased heart rate and blood
pressure

D) decreased blood glucose, increased GI peristalsis, and decreased heart rate and blood
pressure

C) increased blood glucose, decreased GI peristalsis, and increased heart rate and blood
pressure

51

34.The smooth muscle of the digestive viscera is served largely by the ________.

A) lumbar splanchnic nerves
B) cephalic plexus
C) pelvic nerves
D) tenth cranial nerve

D) tenth cranial nerve

52

35.The route of major parasympathetic outflow from the head is the ________.
A) sympathetic trunk
B) phrenic nerve
C) vagus nerve
D) sacral nerve

C) vagus nerve

53

36.Parasympathetic functions include ________.

A) a stimulation of heart rate and force of contraction

B) allowing the body to cope with an external threat

C) lense accomodation for close vision

D) mobilizing storage energy sources

C) lense accomodation for close vision

54

37.All preganglionic axons of the autonomic nervous system release ________.

A) dopamine

B) serotonin

C) the same transmitter as the only one released by the sympathetic postganglionic axons

D) the same transmitter as the one released by parasympathetic postganglionic axons

D) the same transmitter as the one released by parasympathetic postganglionic axons

55

39.The possibility of some control over autonomic responses is demonstrated by ________.

A) split brain studies
B) stress-induced hypertension
C) biofeedback
D) nightmares

C) biofeedback

56

40.The vagus nerve does not innervate the ________.

A) pancreas
B) kidneys
C) parotid gland
D) gallbladder

C) parotid gland