The Autonomics of the Head & Neck Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in The Autonomics of the Head & Neck Deck (33):
1

the parasympathetic system in the head & neck:

the cranial portion of the parasympathetic nervous system leaves the ___ within four cranial nerves (4)

the parasympathetic fibers contained within cranial nerves ___ supply structures within the head (3)

the parasympathetic fibers contained in cranial nerve ___ supply structures in the thorax & abdomen (1)

brainstem
III, VII, IX, & X

III, VII, IX

X

2

the parasympathetic system in the head & neck:

the parasympathetic fibers contained within cranial nerves III, VII, IX, & X are (pre/post-ganglionic) & must relay in parasympathetic ganglia much like the fibers contained within the ___ nerves

preganglionic
pelvic splanchnic nerves

3

the parasympathetic system in the head & neck:

four pairs of parasympathetic ganglia within the head (4)

ciliary
pterygopalatine
submandibular
otic

4

the parasympathetic system in the head & neck:

of the four ganglia:
- the oculomotor nerve (CN III) supplies preganglionic fibers to the ___ ganglion
- the facial nerve (CN VII) supplies preganglionic parasympathetic fibers to both the ___ & ___ ganglia
- the glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX) supplies preganglionic parasympathetic fibers to the ___ ganglion

- ciliary ganglion
- pterygopalatine & submandibular ganglia
- otic ganglion

5

the parasympathetic system in the head & neck:
the ciliary ganglion:

a small ganglion situated toward the back of the ___ on the lateral side of the ___ nerve

three roots (3)

orbit
optic nerve

sensory root
sympathetic root
parasympathetic (motor, oculomotor) root

6

the parasympathetic system in the head & neck:
the ciliary ganglion:
sensory root:

connects the ciliary ganglion to the ___ nerve

nasociliary

7

the parasympathetic system in the head & neck:
the ciliary ganglion:
sympathetic root:

conveys (pre/postgang) (symp/parasymp) fibers through it form the ___ plexus

postganglionic sympathetic fibers
internal carotid plexus

8

the parasympathetic system in the head & neck:
the ciliary ganglion:
parasympathetic (motor, oculomotor) root:

contains (pre/postgang) (symp/parasymp) fibers which synapse in the ganglion

preganglionic parasympathetic fibers

9

the parasympathetic system in the head & neck:
the ciliary ganglion:

postganglionic parasympathetic fibers exit the ganglion through ___ nerves (along w/ sensory fibers from the ___ nerve & sympathetic fibers from the ___ plexus) to the eyeball

short ciliary nerves
trigeminal nerve
internal carotid plexus

10

the parasympathetic system in the head & neck:
the ciliary ganglion:

postganglionic parasympathetic fibers innervate: (2)

postganglionic sympathetic fibers innervate: (2)

ciliary muscle
sphincter of the pupil

dilator of the pupil
vasculature of the eye

11

the parasympathetic system in the head & neck:
the pterygopalatine ganglion:

lies in the ___ fossa where it is suspended from the ___ division of the ___ nerve by two (___) communicating branches

pterygopalatine fossa
maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve
pterygopalatine

12

the parasympathetic system in the head & neck:
the pterygopalatine ganglion:

receives its preganglionic parasympathetic fibers from the nerve of the ___ canal (a combination of preganglionic parasympathetic & taste fibers from the ___ nerve of cranial nerve ___ & postganglionic sympathetic fibers from the ___ nerve)

pterygoid canal
greater petrosal nerve of cranial nerve VII
deep petrosal nerve

13

the parasympathetic system in the head & neck:
the pterygopalatine ganglion:

postganglionic parasympathetic fibers from the ganglion join seven nerves: (7)

- greater & lesser palatine nerves
- posterior nasal branches
- nasopalatine nerve
- pharyngeal nerve
- orbital branches
- zygomatic nerve (which ultimately passes them off to the lacrimal nerve of V1)
- superior alveolar nerves

14

the parasympathetic system in the head & neck:
the pterygopalatine ganglion:

all of the postganglionic parasympathetic branches also contain sensory fibers from the ___ nerve & postganglionic sympathetic fibers from the ___ nerve

the greater & lesser palatine branches also contain taste fibers from the ___ nerve

trigeminal nerve
deep petrosal nerve

greater petrosal nerve (CN VII)

15

the parasympathetic system in the head & neck:
the submandibular ganglion:

lies medial to the ___ suspended from the ___ nerve & close tot he upper border of the ___ gland

attached to the ___ nerve by communicating branches containing preganglionic & postganglionic (symp/parasymp) fibers

mandible
lingual nerve (V3)
submandibular gland

lingual nerve
parasympathetic fibers

16

the parasympathetic system in the head & neck:
the submandibular ganglion:

its preganglionic parasympathetic fibers reach the ___ nerve of the ___ through the ___ which contains preganglionic parasympaethtic & taste fibers (for taste buds of the anterior two-thirds of the tongue)

lingual nerve
trigeminal
chorda tympani (CN VII)

17

the parasympathetic system in the head & neck:
the submandibular ganglion:

the chorda tympani leaves the ___ nerve in the ___ part of the ___ bone, traverse the ___ cavity, & leaves the skull through the ___ fisure

facial nerve
petrous part of the temporal bone
middle ear cavity
petrotympanic fissure

18

the parasympathetic system in the head & neck:
the submandibular ganglion:

the (pre/postgang) (symp/parasymp) fibers synapse in the submandibular ganglion

some of these fibers proceed directly to the ___ gland

the remainder join the ___ nerve via the communicating branches & proceed forward to the ___ & ___ glands

preganglionic parasympathetic fibers

submandibular gland

lingual nerve
sublingual & lingual salivary glands

19

the parasympathetic system in the head & neck:
the otic ganglion:

lies on the medial side of the ___ branch of the ___ nerve, just outside the ___ & deep in the ___ fossa

receives its (pre/postgang) (symp/parasymp) fibers from the ___ nerve

mandibular branch of the trigeminal nerve
foramen ovale
infratermporal fossa

preganglionic parasympathetic fibers
lesser petrosal nerve

20

the parasympathetic system in the head & neck:
the otic ganglion:

the lesser petrosal nerve is a derivative of the ___ nerve & has a very ___ course

glossopharyngeal nerve
circuitous course

21

the parasympathetic system in the head & neck:
the otic ganglion:

the glossopharyngeal nerve gives off the ___ branch that enters the ___ cavity & contributes to the ___ plexus along w/ sympathetic twigs from the ___ plexus & a twig from the ___ nerve

tympanic branch
middle ear cavity
tympanic plexus
internal carotid plexus
facial nerve

22

the parasympathetic system in the head & neck:
the otic ganglion:

the preganglionic parasympathetic fibers then leave the plexus as the ___ nerve

this nerve exits the ___ bone & enters the ___ fossa via the hiatus of the ___ nerve running lateral & parallel to the ___ nerve

lesser petrosal nerve

petrous temporal bone
middle cranial fossa
hiatus of the lesser petrosal nerve
greater petrosal nerve

23

the parasympathetic system in the head & neck:
the otic ganglion:

the lesser petrosal nerve exits the skull via the ___ & enters the ___ fossa

its (pre/postgang) fibers synapse on (pre/postgang) neurons in the otic ganglion

the postganglionic parasympathetic fibers are then passed on to the ___ nerve which distributes them to the ___ gland

foramen ovale
infratemporal fossa

preganglionic
postganglion

auriculotemporal nerve (V3)

parotid gland

24

the sympathetic system in the head & neck:

all of the sympathetic fibers to the head are derived from the ___ ganglion

the preganglionic sympathetic neurons are located in the ___ horns (intermediolateral gray columns) of the ___ segments of the spinal cord

superior cervical ganglion

lateral gray horns

upper thoracic segments

25

the sympathetic system in the head & neck:

the superior cervical ganglion sends fibers along the ___ & ___ arteries (___ & ___ nerves)

external & internal carotid arteries
external & internal carotid nerves

26

the sympathetic system in the head & neck:
external carotid nerve:

one or several nerves run downward from the ___ ganglion to the base of the ___ artery

the nerves form a ___ plexus along the ___ artery & its branches

superior cervical ganglion
external carotid artery

external carotid plexus
external carotid artery

27

the sympathetic system in the head & neck:
external carotid nerve:

the nerves also send a smaller ___ plexus downward along the ___ artery

the external carotid plexus supplies all of the areas of distribution of the ___ arteries including the ___ of the face & neck & the ___ glands

common carotid plexus
common carotid artery

external carotid arteries
sweat glands
salivary glands

28

the sympathetic system in the head & neck:
internal carotid nerve:

the (smallest/largest) branch from the superior cervical ganglion to the head

the nerve forms an ___ plexus on the ___ artery & follows its course

while it is close to the ___ cavity, this plexus gives off twigs that join the ___ plexus on the medial wall of the ___ cavity

largest

internal carotid plexus
internal carotid artery

middle ear cavity
tympanic plexus
tympanic cavity

29

the sympathetic system in the head & neck:
internal carotid nerve:

two main groups of sympathetic fibers leave internal carotid plexus during the course of the internal carotid artery through the ___ sinus (2)

cavernous

sympathetic root of the ciliary ganglion
deep petrosal nerve

30

the sympathetic system in the head & neck:
internal carotid nerve:
sympathetic root of the ciliary ganglion:

runs forward through the ciliary ganglion w/o ___

the fibers enter the ___ nerves & are distributed to the dilator of the ___ & the vasculature of the ___

synapsing

short ciliary nerves
dilator of the pupil
vasculature of the eye

31

the sympathetic system in the head & neck:
internal carotid nerve:
deep petrosal nerve:

joins the greater petrosal nerve to form the ___

the postganglionic sympathetic fibers of the deep petrosal nerve pass through the ___ ganglion w/o synapsing & are distributed w/ all of the branches of the ___ division of the ___ nerve

nerve of the pterygoid canal

pterygopalatine ganglion
maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve

32

stimulation of the sympathetic fibers causes the following:

dilation of the ___ (mydriasis)

elevation of the ___ (smooth muscle component of the levator palpebrae superioris - "superior tarsalmuscle, mueller's muscle")

vasoconstrictoin of the ___ of the ___ & ___

sweating of the ___ of the ___ & ___

pupil

eyelid

blood vessels of the head & neck

skin of the face & neck

33

horner's syndrome:

interruption of the (symp/parasymp) pathway anywhere along its course to the head & neck induces horner's syndrome

symptoms:
- ___: drooping of the eyelid due to paralysis of the smooth muscle component of the levator palebrae superioris
- ___: constriction of the pupil
- ___: inhibition of sweating in face & neck
- ___: of face & neck (redness)
- ___: receding of the eye into the orbital cavity due to paralysis of the orbitalis muscle

the heart rat may also (increase/decrease) b/c the (symp/parasymp) cardiac branches are derived from the cervical (symp/parasymp) ganglia

sympathetic

- ptosis
- myosis
- anhydrosis
- vasodilation
- enophthalmus

decrease
sympathetic
sympathetic ganglia

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