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Flashcards in the back and neck! Deck (32):
1

What are all of the layers of fascia in the neck?

superficial
deep; investing, pretracheal, prevertebral, carotid sheaths

2

what is the superficial fascia of the neck?

This lies between the dermis and the deep cervical fascia
- contains platysma
- contains fat
- contains superficial veins
- superficial lymph nodes

3

What is contained within the superficial fascia of the neck?

platysma
fat
superficial veins
superficial lymph

4

What is the Platysma muscle?

this is located in the cervical fascia of the neck, it has two heads arising from the ehads of the pec major and deltoid fascia
- the fibres cross the clavicle and meet in the midline

5

what are the layers of the deep fascia?

investing
pretracheal
prevertebral
carotid sheaths

6

What is the Investing fascia?

most superficial of the deep fascia
- surrounds all the structures of the neck, meets the trapezius and sternocleidomastoid and completely surrounds them
- superiorly attaches to the external occipital protuberance
- anteriorly attaches to the hyoid bone
- posterior to the ligamentum nuchae
- inferior to the spine, acromion, clavicle and manubrium

7

What does the investing fascia completely surround?

the sternocleidomastoid and the trapezius

8

What are the attachments of the investing fascia?

anteriorly = hyoid bone
posteirorly= ligamentum nuchae
inferior=spine of scapula, acromion, clavicle, manubrium
superiorly= external occipital protuberance

9

What is the Pretracheal layer of the neck?

this is deep to the investing fascia (which is part of the deep fascia
- it has a muscular and a visceral part
- anterior in the neck
- fuses with the pericardium
- muscular encloses the infrahyoid muscles
- visceral encloses thyroid gland, trachea and oesophagus

10

what is the oesophagus enclosed in?

the oesophagus is inclosed in the visceral part of the pretracheal vertebral of the deep fascia of the neck

11

What is the BUCCOPHARYNGEAL FASCIA

this is the posterior aspect of the pretracheal fascia, the visceral preatracheal fascia, fascial covering of the pharynx

12

What is the prevertebral layer?

surrounds the vertebral column and the associated muscles (scalene, prevertebral, and deep muscles)
- superior attaches to the skull
- anterior to transverse processes of vertebral column
- posterior to ligamentum nuchae
- inferior, fuses with endothoracic fascia of the rib cage

13

what layer covers the brachial plexus?

prevertebral fascia and forms the axillary sheath

14

what is the carotid sheath?

formed by contributions of all of the others (not superfiical for obvious reasons)
- contains common carotid which bifurcates IN the sheath
- internal jugular vein
- vagus nerve
- cervical lymph

15

what is the anterior triangle of the neck?

the anterior border is the mandible inferior border
the lateral border is the sternocleidomastoid
the medial border is an imaginary line
- it contains the suprahydoi and the infrahyoid muscles
- also contains the common carotid which bifurcates within it and also the internal jugular
- CN7, CN9, CN10, CN11 and CN12

16

what are the subdivisions of the anterior triangle of the neck

carotid
submandibular
submental
muscular

17

What are the contents and what is the carotid triangle

one of the subdivisions of the anterior triangle
- superior, posterior belly of the digastric msucle
- lateral medial border of sternocleidomastoid
- medial, superior belly of omohyoid muscle

18

What are the contents of the carotid triangle?

common carotid
internal jugular
hypoglossal
vagal nerve

19

what is the submental triangle?

underneath the chin
- contains submental lymph nodes
inferior- hyoid bone
medially- midline of neck
laterally- anterior belly of digastric

20

what are the contents of the submental triangle

base is from the mylohyoid muscle
contains submental lymph nodes

21

what is the submandibular triangle?

underneath body of mandible
- contains the submandibular gland and lymph nodes
- superior body of mandible
- anterior; anterior body of digastric muscle
- posterior- posterior belly of digastric

22

what are the contents of the submandibular triangle?

submandibular gland
lymph
facial artery

23

What is the Muscular triangle?

actually has four boundaries!
- contains infrahyoid muscles, pharynx, thyroid and parathyroid
superior- hyoid
medially- imaginary midline of the neck
superolaterally- superior belly of omohyoid muscle
inferolaterally- inferior portion of SCM

24

What are the borders of the posterior triangle?

anterior- SCM
posterior- trapezius
inferior- middle third of clavicle

25

what are the contents of the Posterior triangle ?

- omohyoid, split into two bellies by tendon; inferior crosses and splits it into two, going under the SCM to enter the anterior triangle
- splenius capitis
- levator scapulae
- scalenes
external jugular veins
- accessory nerves
cervical plexus is within the floor (phrenic goes within prevertebral fascia)

26

how is the posterior triangle divided?

by the omohyoid!
- larger is occipital and smaller is subclavian triangle

27

what does the SCM attach to?

sternum and one to the medial third of clavicle

28

What do the suprahyoid muscles do?

elevate the hyoid and larynx in swallowing; Digastric
stylohyoid
mylohyoid
Geniohyoid

29

What do the infrahyoid muscles do?

depress the hyoid and larynx in swallowing and speech
; sternohyoid
sternothyroid
omohyoid
thryohyoid

30

Why is the neck divided into fascial compartments?

ease of movements
natural planes of tissue packing
determinates the spread of infection

31

What forms the Carotid Sheath?

alar fascia AND formation of the other fascia of the neck

32

What is the retropharyngeal space?

behind the pharynx
behind the pretracheal layer
- alar fascia splits the space behind pretracheal layer and prevertebral into retropharyngeal and danger space