Flashcards in The basis of excitability Deck (33):
What is the timescale for an action potential?
What causes depolarisation?
What is depolarisation?
The cell becoming less negative
What does depolarisation do to PNa
It causes the opening of Na+ channels and PNa increases
What causes repolarisation?
What is repolarisation?
The return of Em to resting potential
What does repolarisation do to Na+ gated channels?
What is conductance of ions?
It is equivalent to permeability
Measured instead of permeability, membrane acts as an electrical resistor (R)
Each ion has its own conductance
Conductance is proportional to what?
To the number of open ion channels
Change in gion will change what?
Depolarisation opens which voltage-gated channels?
What causes the initial depolarisation?
Generator potential (sensory neurone)
What does Em approach in the depolarisation phase?
What happens to Na+ channels in repolarisation?
When do K+ channels open?
As the neurone is repolarising, they open at positive values of Em
What is hyperpolarisation?
Em has returned to its initial value but K+ channels are still open
Em approaches Ek
How is hyperpolarisation dealt with?
The K+ channels finally close
The leak channels restore Em to resting value
What is the value of Ek?
What is the value of ENa?
What is the all-or-nothing principle?
An action potential either happens or it doesn't. They have no difference in size or power
What causes the all-or-nothing principle?
The existence of a threshold
What is the threshold?
The point at which an action potential will fire
What is happening in the neurone at the threshold value?
Na+ influx is greater than K+ efflux
What is the absolute refractory period?
No further action potential by any stimulus regardless of size
What is the relative refractory period?
A stronger stimulus will open sufficient Na+ channels and overcome increased gK that makes the threshold greater
Explain absolute refractory period in terms of voltage-gated channels?
Na+ are mostly inactivated
K+ are mostly open
Explain relative refractory period in terms of voltage-gated channels?
Na+ are recovering from inactivation
K+ some are still open
Why do action potentials not travel backwards in axons?
The membrane behind the action potential is in the refractory period
What is electrotonic spread?
The propagation of an action potential in an unmyelinated axon
How much faster is the speed of an impulse in a myelinated neurone?
What happens to the impulse in a myelinated neurone?
Jumps between nodes of Ranvier
What does the myelin sheath do?
Increases the speed of action potential conduction