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Flashcards in The Battle of Hastings COPY Deck (34):
1

Around what time did the battle start? (1 mark)

9.30am

2

Where were the Saxons positioned? (1 mark)

Senlac Hill

3

What does 'Senlac' mean? (1 mark)

Blood Lake

4

Which of Harold's brothers were at the battle? (2 marks)

Gyrth and Leofwine

5

How many stages were there in the battle? (2 marks)

4

6

How many soldiers in each army? (2 marks)

5,000-7,000

7

Where had William landed in the south of England? (1 mark)

Pevensey

8

What was Harold's 'difficult' decision after Stamford Bridge? (2 marks)

-To go straight to William in the south and attack or
-To wait in London for reinforcements, especially the 5,000 from the border of Wales.

9

What did Gyrth offer to do for Harold while they were waiting in London? (2 marks)

He offered to battle William instead of Harold, so that the King could have longer to build up forces and to protect the leader of the country.

10

How did the Saxons line up at the battle? (3 marks)

- In a Shield Wall
- With the Housecarls in the front
- With the Fyrd behind and at the sides

11

How did the Norman army line up at the start of the battle? (4 marks)

- The Normans were in the centre
- The Bretons on the left
- The French and Flemish on the right

12

What type of soldiers made up the Norman army? (3 marks)

- Archers
- Infantry
- Cavalry.

13

What type of soldiers made up the Saxon army? (2 marks)

Housecarls and Fyrd

14

Who were the Fyrd? (2 marks)

Saxon soldiers who were usually farmers and only provided 30 days service a year for their Lord.

15

Who were the Housecarls? (2 marks)

Professional soldiers who were feared across Europe and had the axe as their favourite weapon.

16

How did William start the battle? (2 marks)

He ordered his archers forward and to shoot on a flat trajectory at the Shield Wall.

17

Name the minstrel that charged at the Saxon shield wall before the battle started? (1 mark)

Tailfer

18

After the archers had begun the battle what did William then order? (2 marks)

For an infantry charge, followed by the cavalry.

19

Who 'won' stage 1? (1 mark)

The Saxons

20

What happened in stage 2? (4 marks)

- The Saxon shield wall continued to hold.
- Then the Bretons heard a rumour that William had been killed.
- The Bretons lost heart in fighting and retreated back down the hill.
- The Saxon Fyrd, who had been battling them, decided to follow and were killed.

21

What was the 'lull' in the fighting? (2 marks)

Half time - the period when William 'drew breath', re-grouped and planned for the next phase of the battle.

22

What was William's main plan in Stage 3 of the battle? (2 marks)

To attempt 'feign' or pretend retreats to try to tempt the Saxons off the hill.

23

Who won stage 2? (1 mark)

The Normans

24

What happened in stage 3? (3 marks)

- The feign (pretend) retreats.
- Whether they were planned or not, the feign retreats began to work and some Saxons (Fyrd) decided to follow (out of the Shield Wall) the Normans thinking they had won.
- Continued Norman infantry and cavalry attacks on the shield wall, but it continued to hold.

25

Who won Stage 3? (1 mark)

The Normans

26

What happened to Gyrth and Leofwine? (1 mark)

They were killed.

27

What happened in Stage 4 of the battle? (4 marks)

- William orders 'loopy' arrows
- At the same time sends his infantry and cavalry for another charge at the Shield Wall.
- Harold is hit in the eye with an arrow and then sought out by Norman cavalry who cut him to pieces.
- The Housecarls are wiped out and Normans take the hill.

28

Who wins Stage 4 of the battle? (1 mark)

The Normans

29

Around what time does the battle end? (1 mark)

5.00pm

30

Finish this sentence - 'William had won a battle......(2 marks)

'but not yet a kingdom'.

31

Did William go straight to London after the battle? (1 mark)

No

32

What did William do after the battle? (3 marks)

- He captured Dover and started building a castle.
- He then installed a new Archbishop of Canterbury
- Then he crossed the Thames at Wallingford so that he could approach London from the north.

33

Where did the Saxons surrender? (1 mark)

Berkhamsted

34

When was William crowned and in what building? (2 marks)

25th December 1066 & in Westminster Abbey