Flashcards in The Bigger Picture Deck (42):
Vast amounts of energy is consumed in:
-production and assembly of computer equipment.
-functioning of equipment
-online data storage in data centres
-recycling of equipment.
Give an example of a smarter technology used to help protect the environment
light sensors that turn off lights when they are not needed
What can waste created by electronic devices cause?
- devices dumped in landfill sites mean toxic waste substances can get into the land and water.
- Severe health issues are caused by living near to e-waste dumps.
List advantages and disadvantages for the sustainability of resources
+ computers help us to develop and produce new sustainable materials and technologies.
+ paperless communication such as email reduces the number of trees cut down.
- Most of the energy used comes from non-renewable resources- fossil fuels such as coal, oil and gas.
Sustainability and e-waste issues can be addressed by recycling or resuing old devices:
-elements can be extracted and reused
-some components can be reused
-unwanted items can be donated to poorer countries
What are the efficiences of using computer science:
-Experts from all field can share research to develop better, smarter solutions. Instant communication speeds up business processes.
-Computer science allows us to monitor and study the environment and better understand how it works and how we affect it.
Debbie wants to buy a new PC but is worried about the amount of electricity it will use. State 2 ways in which she could minimise her computer's use of electricity. (2 marks)
- She could choose an energy efficient device.
-She could switch it off when not it use.
Debbie's computer is running slowly and she wants to replace it with a new one.a) Explain why Debbie should no throw her old computer in the bin.
b)Give 2 ways in which Debbie could dispose of her old computer sustainably.
a)if she throws it always it could end up in landfill that could result in toxic chemicals leaking into the soil and water supplies.
b)She could donate it to charity for reuse. She should take it to a recycling centre or a certified recycling company.
What is the ethical impact of using developed technology?
+ developments ie guidance systems, can have huge benefits for air and sea travel
- but they can allow people to kill thousands of other people remotely using drone.
What is the digital divide?
- the gap between the digital haves and have nots.
- could be caused by a lack of access to broadband, being unable to afford access to it or having low IT literacy.
How does technology make the society more inclusive?
- if people have access to it more people get better access to education,
- adaptive technologies allow people with disabilities to participate more fully in society.
Effects of digital divide:
-Employment- having low IT literacy can lead to low paid employment or even being unemployed.
-Cost - households without internet access have to pay far more as they cannot shop or pay bills online.
-Social isolation- people with now access to the internet are less likely to keep in touch with family and friends.
-Economic growth- countries with poor access to computing technology cannot compete with countries that have access.
How are people trying to bridge the digital divide?
-Governments are investing in infrastructure, e.g bringing broadband to remote areas.
-Providing training to people who are not IT literate
-Facebook has signed up over half the countries in Africa to its free internet service which will have free data charges for mobile users.
Professionalism- Organisations such as Computer Ethics Institute publish ethical statements for computer professionals and users. their ten Commandments of computer ethics include:
-thou shalt not use a computer to harm other people
-Thou shalt not snoop around in other people's computer files
-Thou shalt always use a computer in ways to ensure consideration and respect for your fellow humans.
Codes of conduct outline appropriate professional behaviour. give some membership rules:
-members should develop their professional skills and competence.
-members should never claim a level of competence that they do not possess
-members should never disclose a client's confidential information.
State 2 reasons why not all people can share int he benefits of computer technology. (2 marks)
-They may not be IT literate and cannot use computers.
-They may live in areas where there is poor access to the internet.
Describe what is meant by professionalism in computer science (2 marks)
Professionalism means that computer scientists must behave in an ethical manner and have the skills and competencies required for their jobs.
State 2 codes of conduct that computer scientists should follow in order to be a professional. (2 marks)
-They should not claim a level of competence that they do not possess.
-They should never disclose a client's confidential information.
How does mobile phone service providers monitor where you are?
They keep records of calls and texts that are sent and received. The location of the phone can be tracked 24/7 by comparing the phone's signal strength from different phone masts.
How do people know our movements in and out of the country?
Passports are scanned at airports and immigration checkpoints when we travel abroad. Our movements in and out of the country are monitored.
Why are surveillance camera's used?
-Britain has the largest network of surveillance camera's in Europe. People can be tracked in most cities.
-Automatic Number Plate Recognition (ANPR) makes it possible to track all road vehicles automatically.
How do people monitor what we are doing online?
-Online activity is recorded and used by internet service providers.
-The use of credit cards and debit cards allows the banks to know when, where and how much money you spend.
How do social networking sites monitor what we do?
Social networking sites store a vast amount of information about our movements, activities and habits.
-We have to be careful of making known our digital footprint as too much information on the internet could lead to identity theft.
State 2 ways in which computer science technologies are being used to monitor your location. (2 marks)
-The locations of the phone and GPS enabled devices can be tracked.
-When we use credit cards or passports our location can be identified.
Give 2 arguments for and 2 arguments against the use of surveillance camera's. (4 marks)
+ assist with public safety by preventing antisocial and criminal activity.
+ Can be used to help locate missing people.
- people can wear masks/hoodies to prevent their faces being seen on camera.
-People have the right to privacy and not to be filmed and recorded when they go out.
What is meant by intellectual property?
Intellectual property refers to anything that had been created by a human mind and asserts that the person who created it has the sole rights to its use.
When did intellectual property start being protected and who protected it? (year and name of act made )
Intellectual property is protected by Copyright Designs and Patent Act 1988.
What is a patent?
- a permission granted by a government to a person who has made an invention.
- set for a period of time to stop other people from making use of their inventions without their permission.
- In most countries the length of a patent is 20 years.
What is the Copyright, Designs and patents Act 1988
- protects people's original work from being used without their permission. All original work is copyright.
- The person who creates a work owns the copyright and is the only person who has the right to reproduce, adapt or sell it.
- creators of inventions can apply for patents that prevent others from making, using or selling the invention.
What is licensing?
The license may include:
-how many copies can be installed
- how many computers it can be installed on
-how long the software can be used for before the license has to be renewed.
What is the computer misuse Act of 1990?
This act is indented to promote cyber-security. It lists 3 levels of crime:
-Unauthorised access to computer material- logging into another person's computer with their password without their permission.
-Unauthorised modification of computer material. - destroying or corrupting a user's files.
-Unauthorised access to a computer with intent.- gaining access to financial or administrative records and using the information to commit further crime.
Explain what is meant by intellectual property. (2 marks)
Intellectual property is anything created by a human mind and the person who created it has sole rights to its use.
Explain what is meant by a patent (2 marks)
A patent is a permission granted by a government to a person who has made an invention, for a set period of time, usually 20 years, to prevent others from using it without permission.
Explain what is meant my software licensing (2 marks)
A software license gives a person the right to install a piece of software and use it under the terms of the license, without actually owning it.
What is proprietary software?
is commercially produced by an organisation for a profit eg Microsoft Office
What is open source software?
is software whose source code is available for modification or enhancement by anyone eg Open Office
What are the advantages of proprietry software?
-It is developed professionally and carefully tested.
-Support is provided to keep customers happy so that they will keep using the software.
-Books, magazines articles and online tutorials give advice and instruction.
-Updates and bug fixes meet the needs and suggestions of the users.
What are the disadvantages of proprietry software?
- The source code cannot be modified by other users.
-The person or organisation who created it has full control over it.
-It is developed for majority users and may not meet the needs of an individual
-It has to be paid for
- Support and updates may be expensive
What are the advantages of open source software?
-Users can study the source code to see how the software works
-Users can change and upgrade the software
-Under the license, users can pass on the software to other users for no charge
-It is free to use
-Constant upgrades are available
-Users can modify the source code to adapt it to their needs.
What are the disadvantages of open source software?
-It may not appear as professional as proprietry software or have such a user friendly interface.
-Specialist knowledge may be needed
A school has decided to install an open source software suite of its computer rather than a proprietry version. Describe 2 advantages for the school in doing this. (4 marks)
It is usually free to use and this will save the school a lot of money. The license allows users to see and modify the source code and the school will be able to customise it to their needs or use the code for teaching purposes.