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Flashcards in The Biology of Mind Deck (92)
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1

Everything ___________ is simultaneously ____________.

psychological, biological.

2

All humans are built the same but are different due to:
a. Experiences.
b. Age.
c. Genes.
d. a. and c. .

d.

3

True or False: Thoughts influence biology.
If true, provide an example.

1. True.
2. Stress from a job interview increases heart rate.

4

_________ works on what ___________ provides.

Nurture, nature.

5

What is localization of function?
a. The study of the link between biological and psychological processes.
b. The idea that various brain regions have specific functions.

b.

6

What is biological psychology?
a. The study of the link between biological and psychological processes.
b. The idea that various brain regions have specific functions.

a.

7

True or False: The brain is wired by our experiences.

True.

8

Nerve cells communicate using ________ and _______ signals.
a. Chemical, Electrical.
b. Hormonal, Electrical.
c. Chemical, Hormonal.
d. None of the above.

a.

9

All the brain systems coordinate to form a(n) _______
a. Consciousness.
b. Experience.
c. Visual stimuli only.
d. None of the above.

b.

10

The brain is constantly changing due to the principle of ________.
a. Neural flexibility.
b. Conciouness matinance.
c. Neuroplasticity.
d. Neuroflexibility.

c.

11

True or False: Neuroplasticity only occurs from birth until 18 years of age.

False. It occurs throughout life but is greatest during childhood.

12

What is the cell body of a neuron?
a. The life-support center of the nerve cell.
b. The neuron support cells that provide nutrients, build myelin, guide connections, and absorb ions and neural transmitters.
c. The part of the neuron that receives and integrates information.
d. The fatty tissue that surrounds the neuron that insulates the axon and quickens action potentials.
e. The part of the neuron that passes action potentials through its terminal branches.

a.

13

What are the dendrites of a neuron?
a. The life-support center of the neuron.
b. The neuron support cells that provide nutrients, build myelin, guide connections, and absorb ions and neural transmitters.
c. The part of the neuron that receives and integrates information.
d. The fatty tissue that surrounds the neuron that insulates the axon and quickens action potentials.
e. The part of the neuron that passes action potentials through its terminal branches.

c.

14

What is the axon of a neuron?
a. The life-support center of the neuron.
b. The neuron support cells that provide nutrients, build myelin, guide connections, and absorb ions and neural transmitters.
c. The part of the neuron that receives and integrates information.
d. The fatty tissue that surrounds the neuron that insulates the axon and quickens action potentials.
e. The part of the neuron that passes action potentials through its terminal branches.

e.

15

What is the myelin sheath of a neuron?
a. The life-support center of the neuron.
b. The neuron support cells that provide nutrients, build myelin, guide connections, and absorb ions and neural transmitters.
c. The part of the neuron that receives and integrates information.
d. The fatty tissue that surrounds the neuron that insulates the axon and quickens action potentials.
e. The part of the neuron that passes action potentials through its terminal branches.

d.

16

What are the glial cells of a neuron?
a. The life-support center of the neuron.
b. The neuron support cells that provide nutrients, build myelin, guide connections, and absorb ions and neural transmitters.
c. The part of the neuron that receives and integrates information.
d. The fatty tissue that surrounds the neuron that insulates the axon and quickens action potentials.
e. The part of the neuron that passes action potentials through its terminal branches.

b.

17

A ________ reaction involving the exchange of _____ and _____ results in an _________ _________.

1. chemical, Na+, K+, action, potential.
2. Chemical ------> Electrical

18

What property do the axon surface and the cell membrane share?
a. The fluid mosaic model.
b. Proteins.
c. Phospholipids.
d. Semipermeability.

d.

19

An action potential can be classified as either:
1. Inhibitory or _______________.
2. Excitatory or ______________.

1. stops action from occurring.
2. creates an action.

20

What must be exceeded for an action potential to occur?
a. The excitatory barrier.
b. The inhibitory barrier.
c. The min. threshold.
d. The neural block.

c.
1. or the excitatory impulse must exceed the inhibitory impulse.

21

True or False: The neurons are constantly firing.

False. There is a rest period where no action potential can occur called the refractory period.

22

What causes some sensations to be intenser than others?

The number of neurons firing.

23

What is the place where two neurons meet called?
a. The neural transfer zone.
b. The action potential transfer zone.
c. The neural impulse transfer zone.
d. None of the above.

d. The synapse

24

The _________ gap separates the ______ terminals which is why there is a _______ in the transmission of the ______ potential.

synaptic, axon, delay, action.

25

What is sent across the synaptic gap to establish communication between the two axons?
a. Neurotransmitters.
b. Electrolytes.
c. Ions.
d. b. and c. .

a.

26

What are the three things that could happen to a neurotransmitter after the action potential has been transferred?

1. They drift away.
2. Reabsorbded by the sending neuron (Reuptake).
3. Broken down by enzymes.

27

True or False: Neurotransmitters are emotion and behavior-specific.

True.

28

Acetylcholine (Ach) is linked to ________, memory, and muscle __________.

learning, contractions.

29

What is the proper name for endorphins?
a. Endocannabinoid morphine.
b. Endogenous morphine.
c. Endothelial morphine.
d. Noen of the above.

b. It is a natural pain killer.

30

True or False: The brain's neuroplasticity allows it to balance unnecessary alterations to its chemistry.

False. Severe repercussions may occur.

31

Agonist molecules ______ the actions of neurotransmitters and blocks _________ of neurotransmitters. Antagonist molecules _______ the actions of neurotransmitters and blocks _________ of neurotransmitters.

1. increase, reuptake.
2. decrease, production.

32

What are the two main portions of the nervous systems, what do they contain, and what is their function?

1. Central nervous system (CNS): Brain and spinal cord. Decision making.
2. Peripheral nervous system (PNS): All other nerves. Gathering and relaying information to and from the CNS and the body.

33

What is a sensory neuron?
a. Neurons within the CNS that process info. from sensory neurons and send instructions via motor neurons.
b. Neurons that carry instructions from the CNS to muscles and glands. Efferent.
c. Neurons that carry messages to the CNS. Afferent.

c.

34

What is a motor neuron?
a. Neurons within the CNS that process info. from sensory neurons and send instructions via motor neurons.
b. Neurons that carry instructions from the CNS to muscles and glands. Efferent.
c. Neurons that carry messages to the CNS. Afferent.

b.

35

What is an interneuron?
a. Neurons within the CNS that process info. from sensory neurons and send instructions via motor neurons.
b. Neurons that carry instructions from the CNS to muscles and glands. Efferent.
c. Neurons that carry messages to the CNS. Afferent.

a.

36

What are the two portions of the PNS and what does each do?

1. Somatic nervous system: Voluntary control of skeletal muscles.
2. Autonomic nervous system: Controls glands and internal organ muscles. Can be consciously controlled.

37

What two portions does the autonomic nervous system divide into and what does each do?

1. Sympathetic nervous system: Arouses the body and expends energy. Alert and ready. Increased heart rate, deeper breathing, etc.
2. Parasympathetic nervous system: Calms the body and conserves energy. Relaxed. Decreased heart rate, contracts the bladder, etc.

38

What do the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems work together to maintain?
a. Life.
b. Fight or Flight.
c. Brain Chemistry.
d. Homeostasis.

d.

39

What is a neural network?
a. All of the axons in the CNS.
b. Clusters of working neurons with similar functions.
c. Clusters of working neurons with dissimilar functions.
d. All of the axons in the PNS.

b.

40

The spinal network is a ______-way connection. _______ is where sensory information travels. ________ is where motor control information travels.

1. two.
2. Ascending.
3. Descending.

41

True or False: The nervous system pulls your hand away from the hot stove after the pain is registered.

False. The hand is pulled away before the pain is registered.

42

What other system does the nervous system work with to send messages throughout the body?
a. Endocrine system.
b. Excretory system.
c. Cardiovascular system.
d. Digestive system.

a.

43

What does the endocrine system include and what does the endocrine system secrete?

1. Glands and adipose tissue.
2. Hormones (which influence other tissues).

44

True or False: Neural messages last longer than endocrine messages.

False. Endocrine messages last longer because they travel slower (why emotions can persist long after a situation has ended).

45

The ANS causes the adrenal glands to release what two hormones (choose two answers)?
a. Epinephrine.
b. Cortisol.
c. Acetylcholine.
d. Norepinephrine.

a. and d. .

46

Which endocrine gland is called the master gland?
a. Arenal gland.
b. Hypothalamus.
c. Pituitary.
d. Thyroid.

c.

47

What endocrine gland controls the pituitary gland?
a. Arenal gland.
b. Hypothalamus.
c. Hypothyroid.
d. Thyroid.

b.

48

How big is the pituitary gland and where is it located?

1. Pea-sized.
2. The brain core.

49

True or False: The brain and the mind are different things.

True.

50

The _______ brain controls the right body side and the _______ brain controls the left body side.

left, right.

51

What occurs when areas of the brain are lesioned?

That area loses its function(s).

52

What is an electroencephalogram (EEG)?
a. A test that measures the magnetic field generated by the electrical signals of neurons. Speed and strength are measured.
b. A brain scan that shows brain activity by monitoring the consumption of glucose by the brain. Hot spots.
c. An amplified readout of neural waves that are measured by a computer that uses the data to stimulate the same neural waves in a human.
d. A test where a magnetic field aligns the brain's molecules and disrupts them with a radio wave to form an image.
e. The controlling of individual neurons via lights.
f. A test where infrared light is shined onto RBCs to identify brain activity. Portable.

c.

53

What is optogenetics?
a. A test that measures the magnetic field generated by the electrical signals of neurons. Speed and strength are measured.
b. A brain scan that shows brain activity by monitoring the consumption of glucose by the brain. Hot spots.
c. An amplified readout of neural waves that are measured by a computer that uses the data to stimulate the same neural waves in a human.
d. A test where a magnetic field aligns the brain's molecules and disrupts them with a radio wave to form an image.
e. The controlling of individual neurons via lights.
f. A test where infrared light is shined onto RBCs to identify brain activity. Portable.

e.

54

What is magnetoencephalography (MEG)?
a. A test that measures the magnetic field generated by the electrical signals of neurons. Speed and strength are measured.
b. A brain scan that shows brain activity by monitoring the consumption of glucose by the brain. Hot spots.
c. An amplified readout of neural waves that are measured by a computer that uses the data to stimulate the same neural waves in a human.
d. A test where a magnetic field aligns the brain's molecules and disrupts them with a radio wave to form an image.
e. The controlling of individual neurons via lights.
f. A test where infrared light is shined onto RBCs to identify brain activity. Portable.

a.

55

What is positron emission tomography (PET)?
a. A test that measures the magnetic field generated by the electrical signals of neurons. Speed and strength are measured.
b. A brain scan that shows brain activity by monitoring the consumption of glucose by the brain. Hot spots.
c. An amplified readout of neural waves that are measured by a computer that uses the data to stimulate the same neural waves in a human.
d. A test where a magnetic field aligns the brain's molecules and disrupts them with a radio wave to form an image.
e. The controlling of individual neurons via lights.
f. A test where infrared light is shined onto RBCs to identify brain activity. Portable.

b.

56

What is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)?
a. A test that measures the magnetic field generated by the electrical signals of neurons. Speed and strength are measured.
b. A brain scan that shows brain activity by monitoring the consumption of glucose by the brain. Hot spots.
c. An amplified readout of neural waves that are measured by a computer that uses the data to stimulate the same neural waves in a human.
d. A test where a magnetic field aligns the brain's molecules and disrupts them with a radio wave to form an image.
e. The controlling of individual neurons via lights.
f. A test where infrared light is shined onto RBCs to identify brain activity. Portable.

d.

57

What is functional near-infrared spectroscopy?
a. A test that measures the magnetic field generated by the electrical signals of neurons. Speed and strength are measured.
b. A brain scan that shows brain activity by monitoring the consumption of glucose by the brain. Hot spots.
c. An amplified readout of neural waves that are measured by a computer that uses the data to stimulate the same neural waves in a human.
d. A test where a magnetic field aligns the brain's molecules and disrupts them with a radio wave to form an image.
e. The controlling of individual neurons via lights.
f. A test where infrared light is shined onto RBCs to identify brain activity. Portable.

f.

58

The brain is _____ of the body's weight but consumes _______ of the calories taken in.

2%, 20%.

59

What are the two parts of the brain stem, where are they located and what does each do?

1. The Medulla.
a. The brainstem base.
b. Heart rate and breathing.
* If damaged, death is highly likely.
2. The Pons.
a. Just above the medulla.
b. Sleep and coordination of movement and balance. Connects the brain sides to their corresponding body side.

60

Where is the thalamus located, what is its shape, what is/are its function(s)?

1. Atop the brainstem.
2. A pair of eggs.
3. Sensory for all senses but smell. Directs sensory stimuli to the appropriate brain region. Sends messages from the cortexes to the cerebellum and medulla. Influence over what stimuli we unconsciously focus on while multitasking with other stimuli.

61

Where is the reticular formation located and what is/are its function(s)?

1. Inside the brainstem, between the ears.
2. Neural network from the spinal cord through the thalamus. Filters and passes on spinal cord input to the correct areas. Controls alertness/arousal.

62

Where is the cerebellum located, what is its shape, what is/are its function(s)?

1. Extends from the rear of the brainstem.
2. Baseball-sized, two wrinkled halves.
3. Nonverbal learning and skill memory (coordinates with the basal ganglia). Perception of time (Day v. Night), texture, and sounds. Controls emotions and social behavior. Aids in info. storage, reading, vocab. Coordinates voluntary movement with the pons. Helps with info. processing outside of our awareness (This results in the " something little has changed but I do not know what" itch).

63

What is the border between the old and new brain called?
a. The limbic system.
b. The cerebral border.
c. The limbic border.
d. The cerebral system.

a.

64

What is the limbic system associated with and what are its three parts.

1. Emotion, memory, and drive.
2. Amygdala, Hippocampus, Hypothalamus.

65

Where is the amygdala located, what is its shape, what is/are its function(s)?

1. In the limbic system.
2. Two lima-bean-sized neural clusters.
3. Fear, aggression, and emotional memory.

66

Where is the hypothalamus located, what is its shape, what is/are its function(s)?

1. Just below the thalamus, near the pituitary gland.
2. Neural cluster shape.
3. Hunger, thirst, sexual behavior, body temp., homeostasis, controls the pituitary gland, a reward center, the root of addiction, maintenance of multiple body systems. Each function is tied to a dif. neural cluster.

67

Where is the hippocampus located, what is its shape, what is/are its function(s)?

1. In the limbic system.
2. Seahorse-shaped.
3. Processing of conscious, explicit memories (These memories must be consciously recalled to remember them).
*Atrophies with age and loses its function.

68

Where is the new brain contained?
a. The cerebellum.
b. The cerebro.
c. The cerebrum.
d. The cranial lobes.

c.

69

The cerebrum is composed of _______ hemispheres., accounts for _____ of the brains weight, and enables speaking, _________ and _________.

two, 85%, thinking, perceiving.

70

What is the cerebral cortex, how many neurons and synapses does it possess, and what does it connect?

1. A thin layer of interconnected neural cells.
2. 20-23 billion neurons.
3. 300 trillion synaptic connections.
4. Connects the right and left hemispheres to other areas of the brain.

71

What are the four lobes each hemispheres cortex is divided into, what does each do and where is each lobe located?

1. Temporal: Just behind the ears. Auditory processing.
2. Occipital: At the back of the head. Visual processing.
3. Parietal: At the top of the head and to the rear. Body movement and sensory processing.
4. Frontal: Behind the forehead. Personality.

72

Where is the somatosensory cortex located and what does it do?

1. Located at the front of the parietal lobe. Directly behind the motor cortex.
2. Receives info. about temp., touch, and movement. More sensitive body regions occupy more space.

73

Where is the motor cortex located and what does it do?

1. Located at the back of the frontal lobe. Arch-shaped and runs horizontally across the brain.
2. Controls movements of the body. The more precise the movements are required to be- the more space that area takes up.
* Stimulation of the L. motor cortex causes movement on the R. body.

74

Where are visual stimuli processed? Auditory?

1. The visual cortex in the occipital lobe. *Both eyes see both visual fields. But the L.brain processes what the R.eye sees.
2. The auditory cortex in the temporal lobe. * Sounds entering the L. ear go to the R. auditory cortex.

75

What is the location and function of the prefrontal cortex?

1. Front of the frontal cortex.
2. Planning, judgement, social interactions, making new memories.
*Damage = High intelligence but lack of planning or memory.

76

What function does the parietal lobe perform?

Mathematical and spatial reasoning. The want to move a limb.

77

What function does the R. temporal lobe perform?

Facial recognition.
* Damage= Inability to place a name with a face. Can name them but cannot picture them. Can still describe the face.

78

What is functional connectivity?

Communication between distinct areas and neural networks during activities like language, attention, memory, and social skills.

79

1. If the brain and _______ ______ neurons are severed, they _________ regenerate.
2. Some brain functions are __________ to specific areas. If this area is damaged, the function(s) ______ ____ return.

1. spinal, cord, cannot.
2. preassigned, may, not.

80

What is constraint-induced therapy and what does it aim to do?

1. It is a therapy in which the patient's functional limb is restrained, forcing them to use their "bad" limb.
2. The aim is to force the brain to migrate the functions required for that limb to other areas of the brain.

81

What is neurogenesis?
What is it stimulated by?

1. The creation of neurons. Varies among indivs. and species.
2. Stimulating environments, exercise, and sleep.

82

What are master stem cells?

Stem cells that have the ability to develop into any brain cell type.

83

True or False: The two hemispheres of the brain have dif. funcs. .

True. This is due to lateralization (the lateral change in something).

84

Which hemisphere has more of an effect on daily life if damaged?

The L. hemisphere.

85

What is the corpus callosum and what happens if it is severed?

1. The large neural band that connects the two hemispheres and allows them to communicate with one another.
2. The person will have a split brain which results in both hemispheres trying to lead. Otherwise, it has little impact on intelligence and personality.
*Used to cure seizures.

86

How do the two separate brains incidentally work in tandem?

The R. brain follows verbal commands and the L. brain fills in why the command is being followed.

87

What activities does the R. brain handle? The left brain?

1. Perceptual activities (ex: mazes, puzzles, copying pictures), inferences, modulating speech, self-awareness, and facial recognition.
2. Solving math and speaking.

88

What are the major endocrine glands?

Hypothalamus, Pituitary gland, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Adrenal glands, Adipose tissue, Pancrease, Ovaries, and Testes.

89

What are the 3 basic drives of the old brain?

Sleep, Sex, and Food.

90

True or False: The further up the evolutionary chain an organism is, the larger its new brain is (relative to body size).

True.

91

Who discovered the motor cortex? Who mapped the motor cortex?

1. Fritsch and Hitzig.
2. Foerster and Penfield.

92

What is a brain-computer interface?

When an electrode is used to stimulate the area of the brain related to a certain movement by the conscious thought of the user. This requires a pre-programmed set of stimuli.